It took the United States a few years to enter into the conflagration we today call World War I, but when the Congress authorized military action, an immediate expansion of the Marine Corps was ordered.A number of regiments were brought into existence for employment in Europe and in areas outside the war zone.By late 1918, the Marine Corps had 14 active regiments.Only four of these would serve in Europe; the rest were ordered for service in the Caribbean, or remained stationed in the United States.
The Eighth Marine Regiment (8th Marines) was activated at Quantico, Virginia on 9 October 1917.The regiment initially consisted of four units: Headquarters Company, and the 105th, 106th, and 107th Rifle Companies [Note 1].The regiment was augmented by the 103rd, 104th, 108th, 109th and 110th Rifle Companies on 13 October.Two additional companies were organized on 22 October: 111th and 112th Companies.Major Ellis B. Miller was designated as the regimental commander.He was a 37-year old Marine from Iowa.
At this time, Marine Corps regiments lacked a battalion structure, but in 1917, the Marine Corps adopted the deliberate policy of shaping its regiments to conform to the US Army’s regimental structure.The reason for this was that Major General Hugh L. Scott, serving as Army Chief of Staff, insisted that Marines deployed to France be organized identically with US Army units [Note 2].This made perfect sense in terms of deploying combat forces on the Western Front.Marine regiments would henceforth be organized with a headquarters company and three infantry battalions.Each battalion would consist of a command element and four rifle companies.The size of regiments would average 3,000 men.
The first orders received by the 8th Marines indicated that it could be sent to Texas for a possible thrust into Mexico.
Relations between Mexico and the United States had been strained since the Mexican-American War (1846-48).Since then, Texas and other border states had been subjected to bandit raidsfrom Mexico and insurrections from within Hispanic communities in South Texas.The Mexican Revolution (1910-20) only increased these tension.
In 1914, Mexican authorities arrested nine sailors while their ship was anchored in Tampico.The Mexicans released the sailors, but the US Naval commander demanded an apology and a 21-gun salute.The Mexicans did apologize, but refused to offer the 21-gun honors.As President Wilson consulted with Congress over the matter of a possible invasion of Mexico, US intelligence assets learned that a steamer with German registry was attempting to deliver weapons and munitions for Victoriano Huerta, who had seized control of the Mexican government [Note 3].In response, Wilson authorized the Navy to seize the port city of Veracruz.
In 1916, the Mexican Bandit Pancho Villa crossed the US border with a sizable force and attacked the New Mexico town of Columbus.Villa assaulted the resident detachment of the 13th Cavalry Regiment, burned the town, seized 100 horses, and made off with other military supplies.Eighteen Americans died during the assault; Villa lost about 80 of his banditos.
In January 1917, British Intelligence intercepted a cable from the German Foreign Office addressed to Mexico’s president proposing a military alliance; should the United States enter the war against Germany, a Mexican invasion of the southern portion of the US border would be rewarded by the recovery of Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico.President Carranza referred the matter to a military commission, which concluded that the proposed invasion of former Mexican territory would be neither possible or desirable.
With this as a backdrop, the 8th Marines were ordered to Fort Crockett near Galveston as a contingency force should it be necessary to seize and hold the oil fields at Tampico.The regiment departed for Galveston aboard the USS Hancock on 9 November.A week later, the Marines were creating a campsite at Fort Crockett.
In August 1918, the 9th Regiment and Headquarters, 3rd Provisional Brigade arrived at Fort Crockett.The 8th Marines became part of that Brigade.The Marines remained at Fort Crockett until the end of the war with Germany, but it was not necessary to deploy these Marines into Mexico.Meanwhile, Mexican officials were well aware of the presence of these Marines and their purpose.The placement of these Marines may have materially avoided further conflict with Mexico.
The regiment returned to Philadelphia on 25 April and was deactivated the next day.By the end of 1919, a decision was taken to reactivate the 8th Marines for service in Haiti—an intervention that would not go away [Note 4].A reorganization of Marine Corps units in Haiti, precipitated by an overall reduction in the post-war strength of the U. S. Marine Corps, began in December 1919.The 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment (3/2) was redesignated 1/8 with its field and staff [Note 5], 36th, 57th, 63rd, 65th, 100th, 148th, and 196th rifle companies.8th Marine headquarters was not activated until the following month.
On 5 January 1920, the 8th Marines command element was activated at Port-au-Prince, the capital city of Haiti.Field and Staff, 1/8 was deactivated and its personnel transferred to Headquarters Company, 8th Marines.8th Marines headquarters assumed control of subordinate numbered companies. This was the organization of the 8th Marines for the next five years.The regiment operated with less than 600 men; it’s commanding officer was Lieutenant Colonel Louis M. Little.Colonel Little was an asset in Haiti because he was fluent in the French language.
The Marines were well-aware of a rumor that Cacos bandits were planning to assault the capital city.The attack came at 0400 hours on 15 January 1920.Three-hundred bandits assaulted in three separate columns.Second Lieutenant Gerald C. Thomas commanded an urban patrol of twelve Marines.This patrol and a 50-man group of bandits surprised each other on one of the city’s side streets.Thomas ordered his Marines to hold their fire as the bandits marched toward them.When the bandits had advanced further, they opened fire on the Marines, but Thomas ordered his men to hold until the Cacos were directly in front of their position.The concentrated fire from the Marines literally destroyed the bandit formation, killing 20 insurgents.Thomas’ Marines suffered three wounded.The bandits retreated from the city [Note 6].
In pursuit of the bandit leader Benoit Batraville, Colonel Little adopted aggressive “search and destroy” operations.Marine patrols were constantly in the field looking for a confrontation with the insurgents.This attention forced the rebels to be constantly on the move.Batraville, however, managed to elude capture, which made the Marines even more determined to find and arrest him.
On 4 April 1920, the Marines experienced two significant encounters with the Cacos.At 0700, Sergeant Laurence Muth observed a group of bandits on the summit of Mount Michel.Muth instantly ordered his men to take firing positions and open fire.Unexpectedly, another group of bandits, who were planning to ambush the Marines, opened fire on Muth’s right flank.Sergeant Muth was killed in the first volley; in the ensuing firefight, ten bandits were dispatched but the Marines, being overwhelmed in numbers, withdrew.Sgt. Muth’s body was left behind.An enraged Colonel Little immediately dispatched 21 patrols, with himself leading one of them to the place where Muth was killed.Catching a group of Cacos off guard, the Marines initiated a firefight that resulted in 25 enemy killed.After the fight, Little discovered Sgt. Muth’s remains.He had been decapitated and his heart had been cut out.
Commanding the 100th Company, 8th Marines in the area of Marche Canard, Captain Jesse L. Perkins led his Marines into the countryside to search for Batraville.Personally leading a squad of eleven Marines on 19 May, Perkins became aware of a large Cacos camp within a six hour march.He proceeded to the location with the assistance of native guides.At 0600, Perkins and his Marines encountered an outpost a short distance from the enemy’s main camp.Perkins sent Second Lieutenant Edgar G. Kirkpatrick with seven Marines to envelop the camp site.Captain Perkins, Sergeant William F. Passmore, Sergeant Albert A. Tauber, and Private Emery L. Entrekin [Note 7] assaulted the camp.Although greatly outnumbered, Perkins gambled on the element of surprise.Panic ensued once the Cacos observed the Marines rushing toward their position. Disregarding enemy fire, Perkins and his Marines rushed forward while firing their weapons, momentarily stunning the rebels.Benoit Batraville then appeared to take charge of the rebels.Recognizing Batraville, Sergeant Passmore turned and fired at Batraville with his Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR), killing him instantly.
At the sound of the rifle fire, Lieutenant Kirkpatrick immediately led his seven Marines into a flanking assault.The firefight lasted another 15 minutes resulting in 10 enemy killed and several more seriously wounded. Sergeant Muth’s pistol was found on Batraville’s body.
Although the Cacos leader had been killed, the Marines continued to conduct patrols in order to keep the rebels from reorganizing around a new leader.Many of these patrols were conducted on horses and mules, since these animals were an excellent form of transportation over rough terrain [Note 8].
Problems with Cacos insurgents abated over time, but the hills were infested with bandits who traditionally preyed on defenseless women who were taking their wares to market.To solve this problem, Colonel Little had his Marines disguise themselves as women.When attacked by robbers, the Marines drew their weapons and resolved the problem.After a few of these encounters, Haitian thieves left the women alone.
As the insurgency died down, the Marines undertook other duties, such as mapping the countryside, road construction, building sanitation facilities, and training the local constabulary.When the 8th Marines was no longer needed in Haiti, it was once again deactivated and all assigned Marines were transferred to the 2nd Marine Regiment.We will not hear of the 8th Marines again until the outbreak of World War II.
Santelli, J. S.A Brief History of the 8th Marines.Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 1976
Rottman, G. L.U. S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle, 1939-45.Westport: Greenwood Press, 2002
At this time, rifle companies were numerically designated.
Regiments not ordered for service in Europe maintained the traditional Marine Corps structure.After World War I, Marine Corps regiments gradually adopted the Army’s regimental system.
A portion of the munitions shipment had originated with the Remington Arms Company.
Naval forces had been sent to Haiti in 1915 to protect American and other foreign interests.A series of revolts and disturbances led to an insurrection of Cacos bandits.The intervention dragged on for years as Marines struggled to bring stability to a Republic in shambles.Given what we know about Haiti today, the effort was a waste of American lives, time, and money.
At this time, field and staff was the accepted title for what would later become Headquarters & Service Company.
Thomas later served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps and retired in 1956.He passed away in 1984.
Perkins, Passmore, Taubert, and Entrekin were awarded the Navy Cross medal.
While Marines did use horses and mules, at no time were Marines employed as cavalry units. Of further interest, the US Army never developed a cavalry organization until after the Civil War. Before that, the Army employed dragoons, which were mounted infantry.
In the first few years following the War of 1812, the United States Marine Corps fell into a period of institutional malaise. There were two reasons for this: first, the United States government was unwilling to fund a corps of Marines in larger numbers than needed for service aboard ships of the U. S. Navy. From the outset, the US Marine Corps has always received scant funding, staffing, and equipment. Second, as was the custom in those days, Marine Corps officers were appointed and commissioned through political patronage. The sons of wealthy or politically connected families received commissions; it did not matter whether these appointees were good leaders or even skilled in the art and science of armed warfare. Lacking quality leadership and innovation, the Marine Corps simply “existed.” Political patronage continues to exist in the selection of candidates for the United States’ military and naval academies; those wishing to attend either of these must be nominated of a member of Congress.
In 1820, Archibald Henderson was appointed as the Marine Corps’ fifth commandant. He remained in this position for 38 years—so long, in fact, that he became convinced that the Marine Corps belonged to him. He willed the Marine Corps to his son, but of course, the will didn’t stand up in court. During Henderson’s tenure, however, the Marine Corps undertook expeditionary missions in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, Key West, in West Africa, the Falkland Islands, Sumatra, and against the Seminole Indians as part of the Seminole Indian  and Creek Indian Wars .
Andrew Jackson was not a fan of the Marine Corps, but Commandant Henderson was able to thwart Jackson’s attempt to disband the Marine Corps and combine it with the U. S. Army. In 1834, congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps. The Act stipulated that the Marine Corps was an integral part of the Department of the Navy. Jackson’s attempt was the first of many challenges to the Marine Corps as part of the United States Armed Forces. In any case, Archibald Henderson personally led two battalions of his Marines (half of the entire Marine Corps back then) in the Seminole War (1835). In 1846, US Marines participated in the Mexican American War (1846-48) and made their famed assault on the Chapultepec Palace, later celebrated in the Marine Corps Hymn.
Henderson’s tenure as Commandant ended with his death in 1859 (aged 75 years). In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States and civil war loomed on the near horizon. After Lincoln’s inauguration, southern states began to secede from the union. Many officers of the Army, Navy, and Marine Corps were from southern states; out of a sense of duty to their home states, officers began to resign their commissions. About one-third of the Marine Corps’ commissioned officer strength resigned and accepted commissions in the Confederate States of America. Essentially, this large migration of officers left the US Marine Corps with mediocre officers. A battalion of Marine recruits, having been thrown into the First Battle of Manassas (Virginia) in 1861 were soundly defeated by rebel forces.
Union Marines performed blockade duties, some sea-based amphibious operations, and traditional roles while afloat. US Marines also participated in the assault and occupation of New Orleans and Baton Rouge. These were signal events that enabled the union to gain control of the lower Mississippi River and denied the CSA a viable base of operations on the Gulf Coast. In any case, poor leadership had a negative impact on the morale of serving Marines. Few officers were interested in commanding Marine detachments or battalions; they were content to secure administrative positions. In total, the USMC strength in 1861 was 93 officers and 3,074 enlisted men. President Lincoln authorized an additional 1,000 enlisted men, but a shortage of funding hindered the recruiting effort. Marine recruits were not offered recruitment bonuses (as in the Army and Navy), their length of enlistment was longer, and they earned $3.00 less pay each month.
The U. S. Marine Corps did not enjoy the confidence of the Congress in 1863 and congress proposed transferring the Marines to Army control. The draft resolution was defeated when Colonel Commandant John Harris  died in office, the Secretary of the Navy forced several officers to resign or retire, and Major Jacob Zeilin  was named to replace Harris. Zeilin, although 59-years old at the time, was a combat veteran with a good reputation, whose duties were executed well enough to earn him the first Marine Corps commission to general (flag rank) officer. Still, neither Harris nor Zeilin considered the employment of Marines as an amphibious assault force.
Despite poor leadership among the officers, seventeen enlisted Marines received the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gallantry during the Civil War. Thirteen of these men served as noncommissioned officers and performed the duties of gun captain or gun-division commander. By the end of 1864, the recruitment of Marines improved with changes to conscription laws and additional funds to pay a recruiting bounty. During the war, 148 Marines were killed in action; 312 additional men perished from other causes (illness/accident).
The Confederate States Marine Corps (CSMC) was established on 16 March 1861 with an authorized strength of 46 officers and 944 enlisted men. The actual strength of the CSMC never came close to its authorized strength. In 1864, the total strength of the CSMC was 539 officers and men. Heading the CSMC as Colonel Commandant Lloyd J. Beale, who previously served the US Army as its paymaster. He had no experience as a Marine, which meant that his subordinate officers, who were Marines, had little regard for his leadership ability. He was simply a bureaucrat, and everyone treated him as such.
The CSMC was modeled after the USMC, but there were important differences. In the south, Marine companies were structured as permanent organizations. The fife was replaced by the bugle, and CSMC uniforms were designed somewhat similar to those of the Royal Marines.
Confederate Marines guarded naval stations at Mobile, Savannah, Charleston, Richmond, and Wilmington and manned naval shore batteries at Pensacola, Hilton Head, Fort Fisher, and Drewery’s Bluff. Sea-going detachments served aboard Confederate ships, including the CSS Virginia (Merrimack) in 1861, and as part of the naval brigade at the Battle of Saylor’s Creek. The Confederate Marines did perform well-enough, but as with their Union counterpart, the officer corps was plagued with laziness and paltry bickering over such things as seniority, shore duty, and administrative (staff) assignments. The enlisted men, as has become a Marine Corps tradition, observed this petty behavior, shrugged their shoulders or rolled their eyes, and went on with their duties.
The Confederate States of America ceased to exist with General Robert E. Lee’s surrender at the Appomattox Court House. In the post-war period, U. S. Marines began a period of introspection about the roles and missions suitable for a small corps of Marines. The Navy’s transition from sail to steam negated the need for Marine sharpshooters aboard ship. Without masts and rigging, there was no place for Marines to perch. What evolved was an amphibious role for Marines during interventions and incursions to protect American lives and property.
In 1867, Marines took part in a punitive expedition to Formosa  (Taiwan). A few years later in 1871, Marines participated in a diplomatic expedition to Korea —its purpose to support the American delegation to Korea, ascertain the fate of the merchant ship General Sherman, and to sign a treaty assuring aid to distressed US merchant sailors. When the Koreans attacked US Navy ships, the diplomatic effort turned into a punitive one. In the subsequent battle of Ganghwa, which involved 500 sailors and 100 Marines, nine sailors and six Marines were awarded the Medal of Honor for their intrepidity in armed conflict. Neither of these two expeditions were overwhelmingly successful, but the action did manage to start a conversation within the Navy and Marine Corps about amphibious warfare.
Then, in October 1873, a diplomatic dispute involving the United States, United Kingdom, and Spain caused concern in the United States about its readiness for war with a European power. It is known as the Virginius Affair. Virginius was a fast American-made trade ship hired by Cuban insurrectionists to land men and munitions in Cuba, to be used to attack the Spanish regime there. The ship was captured by Spain, who declared that the men on board were “pirates” and Spain’s intention to execute them. Many of these freebooters were American and British citizens. Spain did in fact execute 53 of these men and only halted the process when the British government demanded it. There was talk inside the US that the American government might declare war on Spain. Eventually, the matter was resolved without resorting to arms, but the incident did set into motion a new (and henceforth, ongoing) role for the U. S. Marines.
In 1874, the US Navy and Marines conducted brigade sized landing exercises in Key West. Additional training exercises were conducted on Gardiners Island in 1884, and Newport, Rhode Island in 1887. Subsequently, in the 35-years between the end of the American Civil War and the end of the 19th century, Marines were engaged in 28 separate interventions.
Sullivan, D. M. The United States Marine Corps in the Civil War. Four volumes, 1997-2000). White Mane Publishing.
Scharf, J. T. History of the Confederate States Navy from its Organization to the surrender of its last vessel. Fairfax Press, 1977.
Tyson, C. A. Marine Amphibious Landing in Korea, 1871. Marine Corps History Division, Naval Historical Foundation, 2007.
 There were three distinct wars: 1816-19, 1835-42, 1855-58. In total, the Seminole Wars became the longest and most expensive Indian wars in US history.
 Harris served as a US Marine for 50 years. As commandant, his tasks were challenging. He lost one-third of his officers at the beginning of the Civil War, was forced to give up a full battalion to augment the US Secret Service, and came to grips with the fact that with such a small force, there is little the Marine Corps could contribute to the Union effort. Harris was more or less content to remain “out of sight” and comply with Navy Regulations as best as he was able. Accordingly, US Marines did not play a major role in expeditions and amphibious operations during the Civil War.
 General Zeilin approved the design of the now-famous Eagle, Globe, and Anchor emblem of the U. S. Marine Corps (1868). He is additionally credited with establishing many Marine Corps customs and traditions that remain with the Corps to this very day, including the Marine Corps Hymn, the officer’s evening dress uniform, and adoption of the Marine Corps motto, “Semper Fidelis.”
 When the bark Rover was wrecked and its crew came ashore in Formosa, natives attacked and massacred them. The US Navy landed a company of sailors and Marines to avenge this insult to American soverignty, but the enemy employed guerrilla tactics, which forced the landing force back to their ships. The lesson learned as a result was that Marines would have to learn how to think outside of the box.
I initially introduced my readers to Commodore Joshua Barney while recounting the Battle of Bladensburg, which occurred in 1814. His command of the Marines at Bladensburg (where the President of the United States placed himself under Barney’s command) piqued my interest in this heroic figure from America’s past. As it turns out, Commodore Barney was not simply a highly skilled naval officer, he was gutsy, determined, and resourceful, as well.
A son of Baltimore, Maryland , Joshua Barney (1759-1818) initially went to sea at the age of 12 in 1771. Four years later, he served as second-in-command to his brother-in-law aboard a merchant ship involved in European trade. When the brother-in-law died, Barney assumed command of the ship and navigated the ship to Nicard Occitan (Nice). There is much about his early years that we do not know, but he did marry twice and had children with both his wives.
Beginning in 1776, Barney served as a commissioned officer in the Continental Navy, the master of the Hornet, and at the time, the youngest commander of a Continental warship. In this capacity, he participated in the raid on New Providence, in the Bahamas, under the command of Commodore Esek Hopkins. The Navy promoted him to lieutenant in recognition of his gallantry in the action between Wasp and the British brig , HMS Betsey. Later, while serving aboard Andrew Doria, he played a prominent role in the defense of the Delaware River. The British took Barney as a prisoner (and exchanged him) on several occasions during the Revolutionary War. In 1779, the British held him at the Old Mill Prison at Plymouth, England until he escaped in 1781. Barney wrote a memoir about his adventures, published in 1832 by his relatives, long after his death.
In April 1782, the Navy placed Barney in command of the Pennsylvania ship Hyder Ally. During the Battle of Delaware Bay, Barney captured the better-armed HMS General Monk. Monk was renamed General Washington and Barney was rewarded by giving him command of that ship. With orders to deliver dispatches to Benjamin Franklin in France. Barney’s return voyage to the United States carried news of peace with Great Britain and the end of the Revolutionary War.
After the war, Barney joined the French navy. The French appointed him to serve as a squadron commander with the rank of captain. From June through October 1796, Barney commanded the frigate Harmonie, which was serving on station in the Caribbean and Chesapeake Bay. As the Napoleonic Wars did not begin until 1803, it does not appear that Captain Barney served under the French flag at that time.
The United States had no interest in becoming involved in the Napoleonic Wars, but the loss of commercial ships to British raiders, the illegal impressment of American sailors into the Royal Navy, and the insult to national pride eventually brought the United States back to war with Great Britain in 1812. Even so, the United States was ill-prepared for another war, either on land or at sea. Were it not for the fact that the British were fully engaged with France in Europe, it might have gone very badly for the fledgling United States in the early days of this conflict. The Royal Navy was, at that time, the strongest navy in the world. In comparison, the United States Navy was but a flea on the backside of a rogue elephant.
Without a navy of any substance, the United States began to construct, commission, and capture ships to serve as warships. One of the more successful privateers was Joshua Barney of Baltimore, Maryland, who in 1812 was 53 years of age and living near Elk Ridge, Maryland. Because he had served under a foreign flag as a naval commander, the US Navy denied Barney command of a United States Navy ship; instead, the Navy offered him command of the privateer schooner Rossie. As a privateer, Barney excelled. On a single voyage, Barney captured four ships , eight brigs, three schooners , and three sloops , a total value of around 1.5 million pounds. By December of 1812, the Royal Navy was rampaging the Chesapeake Bay, blockading ports and taking what they wanted from shoreline villages and towns. Their first defeat came at the mouth of the Elizabeth River when the Royal Navy failed to seize Norfolk, Virginia —but as an act of revenge, the British sacked the town of Hampton. The American army’s commitment to operations in Canada left the Chesapeake Bay undefended, allowing the British navy to invade the American shore with impunity.
Despite its few resources and very little money, the United States government resolved to do something. This is when Captain Barney stepped forward with a plan to defend the Chesapeake. In those days, it was easy for a citizen to approach the President of the United States. Barney drew up his plan and delivered it personally to President Madison. It was as detailed a plan as anyone had ever seen, including sketches of gunboats that were like river-barges , equipped with oars and light sails, and armed with one large gun. As Barney envisioned it, these small vessels would be manned by local men, would draw attention to themselves but they would also be proficient in keeping an eye on the British navy. With a shallow draft, the barges would be able to withdraw close to shore where the British could not follow. One of Barney’s selling points was that the barges were relatively inexpensive to build and, once the war was over, the vessels could go on the block for commercial use.
President Madison was suitably impressed. He appointed Barney as Commander of the Chesapeake Bay Flotilla. Construction of the barges began in earnest and bounties were offered to entice men who would otherwise have served as privateers, or enlisted men in the land forces. News of the flotilla quickly spread, and this prompted the British to construct barges of their own on tangier Island. Within a short time, Barney had seven (7) 75’ barges, six (6) 50’ barges, two gunboats , one row galley , a lookout boat, and his flagship USS Scorpion.
With eighteen vessels (but scant supplies), Barney led his flotilla from Baltimore to attack Tangier Island and destroy the British efforts there. With the discovery of British reconnaissance troops near St. Jerome’s Creek, Barney decided to attack these men. The surprise was that a British warship was in hiding not far distant, causing Barney to make a rapid withdrawal into the Patuxent River. British captain Barrie, in command of HMS Dragon, blockaded the mouth of the Patuxent River and waited for reinforcements from HMS Jaseur and HMS Loire. Barney continued his withdrawal to the shores of St. Leonard’s Creek. Initially, with the realization that the British out-gunned him four to one, Barney saw little chance of besting the British, but his position offered an excellent defense. We remember this three-day battle as the Battle of the Barges. The conflict ended in a draw, but Barney did not lose a single man to British fire, while the Royal Navy suffered numerous casualties.
In August of 1814 48-British ships arrived in the Chesapeake with a contingent of 5,400 soldiers under the command of Major General Robert Ross. These troops landed at the little down of Benedict and began their march northwards. Admiral Sir George Cockburn, serving as overall commander-in-chief, sailed up the Patuxent River … altogether setting into motion the Battle of Bladensburg —the defense of the City of Washington. Given the timidity of the undisciplined American militia, all that really stood between General Ross’ army and Washington was Commodore Barney and around 500 sailors and Marines. Of course, we know that it was a futile defense and Barney was (once more) captured by the British. Although seriously wounded, Barney was well-treated by the British, who congratulated him on his gallantry under fire. Before his capture, Barney ordered his flotilla burned to keep them from falling into the hands of the British; the remnants of this force remain at the bottom of the Patuxent River today. With the peace came Barney’s release from captivity and he returned to his home in Anne Arundel County.
The wound he received in 1814 eventually killed Commodore Barney, who at his death was only 59 years old.
S. Naval History and Heritage Command, Joshua Barney, online resource.
Barney, M. A Biographical Memoir of the Late Commodore Joshua Barney From Autographical Notes and Journals in Possession of His Family and Other Authentic Sources. Gray and Bowen, publishers, 1832.
Shomette, D. Shipwrecks on the Chesapeake. Centerville, MD: Tidewater Publishers (1982)
Ellis, J. J. His Excellency, George Washington. New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 2004
 A frigate in the age of sail was a warship built for speed and maneuverability and could be a vessel of several sizes. Their principle batteries could be placed on a single deck, or on two decks with smaller guns. They were generally two small to stand in the line of battle. They were full rigged with square sails on three masts and mostly used as escort ships and patrolling. They usually carried 28 guns.
 In context, ship meaning ships of the line or full-rigged vessels with three or more full-rigged masts. Ships of the line were generally categorized as first, second, or third-rate vessels (more than 64-guns). Fourth-rate ships came into being in the mid-18th century (50-60 guns).
 A schooner is a fore and aft-rigged vessel with two or more masts, of which the foremast is shorter than the main.
 Sloops were fore-and-aft rigged vessels with a single mast. They were later powered warships between corvettes and frigates in overall size.
 Essentially, shoal-draft flat bottom boats normally constructed as river or canal transport of bulk goods.
 Gunboats were of various sizes and armaments with a single mast.
 An armed craft that used oars rather than sails but was often fitted with sails in addition to its oars.
Scorpion was a self-propelled floating artillery battery, sloop rigged with oars. As part of the Chesapeake Bay flotilla, Scorpion was commanded by Major William B. Barney, Commodore Barney’s son.
November 10th is the 244th anniversary of the founding of the United States Marine Corps. If you’ve never served as a Marine, then you will never know what being a Marine is all about. If you’re interested, though, here’s a short glimpse of our history.
If you are a Marine (there are only two types: those still living (and have maintained their faith with us), and those who aren’t), then you are my brother or sister. To you, I wish the happiest (and safest) of all Marine Corps birthday celebrations.
Occasionally, one wonders, “What in the hell is the matter with people?” I have to say that the American navy has a rich history of honor, sacrifice, and fortitude, but there are a few blemishes, as well —which is true within all our military branches. Our military is representative of our society —its strengths and weaknesses. There is no justification for dwelling on them, but they do present important lessons and we either learn from them or repeat them to our sorrow.
Two disgraces stand out. The first involves Rear Admiral (then Captain) Leslie Edward Gehres, USN (1898-1975) whose primary contribution to the Navy was his toxic leadership while in command of the USS Franklin (CV-13) (1944-1945). Gehres assumed command of USS Franklin at Ulithi, relieving Captain J. M. Shoemaker. Under Shoemaker, USS Franklin had come under attack by Japanese kamikaze aircraft. At the change of command ceremony, Gehres told the ship’s crew, “It was your fault because you didn’t shoot the kamikaze down. You didn’t do your duty; you’re incompetent, lazy, and careless. You don’t know your jobs and I’m going to do my best to shape up this crew.” The vision of this takes us to the film Caine Mutiny, starring Humphrey Bogart—a psychopath placed in command of the fictional destroyer, USS Caine. One can only imagine how Captain Shoemaker felt having to listen to Gehres’ tripe on his last moment of command.
Gehres was raised in Rochester, New York and Newark, New Jersey. He enlisted in the New York Naval Militia in 1914. His unit was activated for World War I service and Gehres was assigned to USS Salem, USS Massachusetts, and USS Indiana. Subsequently, Gehres attended the Reserve Officer’s Course at the USN Academy. He was commissioned an ensign on 24 May 1918. Gehres received a regular commission in the Navy in September of that year while serving aboard USS North Dakota in the Atlantic. He was assigned to flight training at Pensacola, Florida and received his designation as a Naval Aviator in August 1927.
In November 1941, Gehres commanded Fleet Patrol Wing 4. He spent most of World War II in the Aleutian Islands. His subordinates referred to him as “Custer” because of his illogical tactics and erratic behavior. Despite a rather poor reputation among his subordinates, Gehres was advanced to the rank of Commodore —the first Naval Aviator to achieve this rank.
In November 1944, he took a reduction in rank designation in order to assume command of USS Franklin. His remarks at the change of command ceremony must not have done very much for crew morale. In 1945, Franklin was assigned to the coast of the Japanese homeland in support of the assault on Okinawa. Ship’s aircrews initiated airstrikes against Kagoshima, Izumi, and southern Kyushu. At dawn on 15 March, the ship had maneuvered to within 50 miles of the Japanese mainland and launched a fighter sweep against Honshu Island and Kobe Harbor. It was a stressful time for the crew, who within a period of six hours, had been called to battle stations on six separate occasions. Gehres finally allowed the crew to eat and sleep but maintained crewmen at gunnery stations.
A Japanese aircraft appeared suddenly from cloud cover and made a low-level run on the ship to drop two semi-armor piercing bombs. Franklin received a “last minute” warning of the approaching aircraft from USS Hancock, but Gehres never ordered “general quarters.” One-third of the crew were either killed or wounded. It was the most severe damage of any surviving USN aircraft carrier in World War II. As a result of officer and crew activities, ten officers and one enlisted man was awarded the Navy Cross —one of those being Gehres.
(Chaplain) Father Joseph T. O’Callaghan refused the Navy Cross for his participation in the aftermath of the Franklin bombing. Some speculated that the priest turned down the award because his heroic actions in the aftermath of the bombing reflected unfavorably on Gehres leadership as Commanding Officer. President Truman intervened, however, and Father O’Callaghan was awarded the Medal of Honor on 23 January 1946. True to form, Captain Gehres charged crewman who had jumped into the water, to avoid death by fire, with desertion. Gehres charges against crewmen were quietly dropped by senior naval commanders in the chain of command. Captain Gehres, while advanced to Rear Admiral (Lower Half), was never again assigned to a position of command. By 2011, Gehres was universally excoriated for significant deficiencies in leadership. Admiral Gehres became a study of poor leadership —but one wonders why the Navy promoted him to flag rank. His behavior in command of USS Franklin became the very definition of “toxic leadership.” Indeed, it was.
A second failure in navy leadership involved the case of Captain Charles B. McVay III (1898-1968). Captain McVay was a highly decorated navy officer in command of USS Indianapolis (CL/CA 35) when the ship was torpedoed and sunk in the Philippine Sea on 30 July 1945. Of the 1,197 crew, only 317 survived the sinking. Of all ship’s captains in the history of the US Navy, McVay was the only officer ever court-martialed for the loss of his ship in a combat action.
At the time, USS Indianapolis, a heavy cruiser (formerly the flagship of Admiral Raymond Spruance, 1943-1944), was on a top-secret mission and under the direct authority of the President of the United States. Its mission was to deliver two atomic bombs to Tinian Island. Because the mission was top secret, speed was of the essence and to prevent attention to her course, no escorts were authorized. This was a catastrophe of epic proportions. Captain McVay, wounded, ordered his crew to abandon ship. Of the 897 (approximate) crewmen who went overboard, 317 survived massive shark attacks over a period of five days.
Why was Captain (later promoted to Rear Admiral) court-martialed? The Navy accused him of hazarding his ship by not following a zig-zag course through the Philippine Sea. He was found “not guilty” of a second charge of “failing to order abandon ship in a timely manner.” The fact was, however, that the Navy failed the USS Indianapolis on several fronts. First, the Navy refused to provide the cruiser with escort ships, to which it was entitled during war. Second, the Navy delayed its rescue of the crew (owing to the secret mission assigned to the ship) and no report of an overdue ship was made, again owing to the nature of its secret mission.
A navy court of inquiry recommended that Captain McVay be court-martialed. Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander, U. S. Pacific Fleet disagreed, but he was overruled by the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Ernest J. King . The Japanese commander of the submarine that sank Indianapolis was called to testify at McVay’s court-martial. He stated that given the proximity of Indianapolis to his submarine, zigzagging wouldn’t have made any difference —Indianapolis was dead the minute the torpedoes were fired. Ultimately, Admiral King ordered any punishments to be set aside.
Captain McVay suffered for the remainder of his life over the death of his crew, but not a single man lost was the result of McVay’s competence. After the loss of his wife to cancer in 1967, Charlie McVay took his own life in 1968. This too was a failure of Navy leadership. McVay was a good man chastised for no good reason other than as a scapegoat for poor Navy leadership.
The Day the Carrier Died: How the Navy (Nearly) Lost an Aircraft Carrier in Battle. James Holmes, National Interest Newsletter, 28 April 2019
Stanton, D. In Harm’s Way: The Sinking of the USS Indianapolis and the Extraordinary Story of Its Survivors. Reed City Productions, 2001
Hulver, R. A. and Peter C. Luebke, Ed. A Grave Misfortune: The USS Indianapolis. Naval History and Heritage Command, 2018.
 According to author Richard F. Newcomb (Abandon Ship), Admiral King’s insistence that Captain McVay appear before a court-martial was because Captain McVay’s father, admiral McVay (II) once censored King, as a junior officer for regulatory infractions. According to Newcomb, Admiral King never forgot a “grudge.”
What is a Marine? The short answer would be a specialized member of the armed forces who participates in efforts to project naval power ashore. What makes a Marine stand out from a regular soldier and sets him apart from any other fighting organization isn’t just a matter of how they’re trained, the equipment they use, or their tactical skills. It is the fighting spirit that lives within each Marine —and this is what drives a Marine to accept nothing less than victory in all lethal situations. It is the determination to win, the eagerness to fight, and the high standard of excellence they demand of themselves and each other that makes a Marine unique. Their battle record speaks for itself.
Marines are, by definition, an expeditionary force in readiness who are deployed at a moment’s notice to quickly and aggressively win their nation’s battles. Marines have a long history of developing expeditionary doctrine and amphibious innovation that sets the standard for all other branches of military service. In projecting naval power into a hostile environment, Marines rely on their superior training, their self-confidence, their discipline, and each other to win the day. Toward this end, Marines are trained to improvise, adapt, and overcome every obstacle in whatever situation they encounter. They are not only willing to engage any enemy force; they are also determined to defeat them until national victory has been achieved. Marines have but one mission: fight, and win.
Of all Marine organizations that exist in the world today, only two stand out: United States Marines, and their British counterparts—the Royal Marines.
The story of the Royal Marines began on 28 October 1664 when Great Britain formed the Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot. It soon became known as the Admiral’s Regiment. The Holland Regiment (later called The Buffs) was also raised to serve at sea on 11 July 1665. Both regiments were paid for by the Admiralty. John Churchill, later 1st Duke of Marlborough, was a famous member of The Buffs. Additionally, a company of foot guards served as Marines to augment the Admiral’s Regiment during the sea battle at Sole Bay in 1672. The Holland Regiment was disbanded in 1689 after James II was deposed during the so-called Glorious Revolution.
Two maritime regiments of the British Army were raised in 1690 —the Earl of Pembroke’s and Torrington’s Regiments, later designated Lord Berkeley’s Regiment. These Marines participated in an opposed landing during the Williamite War in Ireland at Cork on 21 September 1690, John Churchill commanding. The Marine Establishment was reformed in 1698. Two existing regiments became a single regiment under Thomas Brudenell, and the foot regiments under William Seymour, Edward Dutton Colt, and Harry Mordaunt were converted to Marine regiments —all of which were disbanded in 1699.
In 1702, six regiments of Marines and six Sea Service Regiments of foot were formed to participate in the War of Spanish Succession. While on land, the Marines served under Brigadier General William Seymour; while at sea, they fell under the authority of the senior naval commander and the captain of the ship to which assigned. The Admiral’s Regiment first distinguished itself in 1704 when the Marines captured the mole  during the assault on Gibraltar. British and Dutch Marines later defended the fortress from counterattack. After the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, three Marine regiments were transferred to the army, where they were designated as the 30th, 31st, and 32nd Regiments of Foot.
The Admiral’s Regiment was redesignated as His Majesty’s Marine Forces on 5 April 1755; fifty companies were organized into three divisions, placed under the command of the Admiralty, and stationed at Portsmouth, Chatham, and Plymouth. Note: shown left, a painting of an early Maritime officer.
British Marines were not the first naval infantry to emerge in Europe. They were preceded by the Spanish Infanteria de Marina (1537), Venice’s Fanti da Mar (1550), the Portuguese Marine Corps (1610), and the French Troupes de Marine (1622). The British, in turn, established a regiment of (3,000) American Colonial Marines during the War of Jenkins’ Ear, around 1739.
In the early days, all field-grade officers of the Marines were serving officers in the Royal Navy. Because the Admiralty believed that the top field officer ranks were largely honorary posts (which was also true in the Army), the farthest a field officer could advance was to lieutenant colonel. It was not until 1771 that the first Marine officer was promoted to colonel, but this situation persisted well into the 1800s. In any case, British Marines performed numerous amphibious landings throughout most of the 18th Century. Among the more famous was the landing at Belle Isle  in 1761. British Marines also served during the American War of Independence. A company of Marines under Major John Pitcairn broke rebel resistance at Bunker Hill and took possession of the American’s redoubt. When Royal Navy ships were becalmed, Marines often took to ship’s boats to repel attackers during blockade operations. On the day that Captain James Cook was killed in Hawaii (14 February 1779), he had with him four British Marines: Corporal James Thomas, Private Theophilus Hinks, Private Thomas Fatchett, and Private John Allen.
In May 1787, four companies of Marines under Major Robert Ross accompanied the First Fleet  to protect a new colony at Botany Bay (New South Wales). Due to a gross oversight, the First Fleet departed Portsmouth without its main supply of ammunition, cartridge paper, and flintlock tools. The oversight was noted early in the voyage and a dispatch sent back to England that the missing supplies be urgently forwarded to the fleet. Captain William Bligh was assigned this mission while in command of HMS Bounty. Ten thousand rounds of ammunition were obtained from Rio de Janeiro, but these stores were still inadequate and in time, the Marines would find themselves in difficult circumstances. A full measure of stores was never sent to the First Fleet.
In total, the Marine contingent of four companies included 212 Marines; of these, 160 privates. Marine strength was based on the advice of Mr. Joseph Banks, who counselled the British government that local Aborigines were few and retiring by disposition. Upon their arrival at New South Wales, Captain Arthur Phillip, Royal Navy, found that the natives were populous and aggressive. Within a year, Aboriginals had killed 6 of the First Fleet and wounded scores of others. Marines were ordered to expand the initial settlement area at Sydney Cove and organize farming operations at Parramatta. When Aboriginals contracted smallpox, some journalists claimed that the British Marines deliberately spread the disease. Most modern scholars regard this as uncorroborated bunk, however.
At the instigation of Admiral John Jervis, 1st Earl of St. Vincent in 1802, His Majesty’s Marine Forces were titled Royal Marines by King George III.
Up until 1804, the Royal Artillery Regiment had provided artillery support to the British Marines. A lawsuit by a Royal Artillery Officer led a civil court to declare that Army officers were not subject to Navy regulations or the orders of Naval officers. Accordingly, Royal Marine Artillery was added to the Royal Marines in that very same year. They were referred to as “Blue Marines” because these forces retained the blue coats of the Royal Artillery Regiment. In contrast, the Royal Marines dressed in scarlet coats (as did the British Army). They were called “Red Marines” or, more derisively, Lobster backs by the unenlightened naval ranks.
During the Napoleonic Wars, Royal Marines took part in every notable naval battle on board Royal Navy ships, executed amphibious raids, provided security aboard ship, maintained discipline among the crew, engaged enemy crews with long rifles, and led boarding parties.
The number of Marines assigned to Royal Navy ships depended on the size of the ship, but Marine strength was usually maintained at a ratio of one Marine per ship’s gun, plus officers commanding. A “first rate ship of the line” would have a compliment of 104 Marines; a 28-gun frigate would have 29 Marines. Between 1807 and 1814, a total of 31,400 men served in the Royal Marines but given the size of the Royal Navy during this period, and the missions assigned to the Royal Navy, British Army detachments frequently served aboard Navy ships to augment the Royal Marines. Seaborne operations frequently included blockading French ports and conducting amphibious raids against French signal communications stations and other operations designed to harass the enemy.
In the Caribbean, freed French slave volunteers formed the 1st Corps of Colonial Marines to help bolster the ranks of Royal Marines. This practice was repeated during the War of 1812, when escaped American slaves were formed into the 2nd Corps of Colonial Marines. These men were commanded by Royal Marine officers and fought alongside their regular Marine counterparts at the Battle of Bladensburg (August 1814). During this battle, a detachment of Royal Marine Artillery under Lieutenant John Lawrence deployed Congreve rockets  with telling effect against American militia. A battalion of Royal Marines augmented the 21st Regiment of Foot during the burning of Washington. They did not torch the U. S. Marine Corps Barracks at 8th & I Streets, however.
During the War of 1812, Royal Marines frequently operated in the Chesapeake Bay, including operations up the Penobscot River. This was a composite battalion, formed from several ship’s detachments, serving under Captain John Robyns . A smaller organization of Royal Marines, numbering around 100 troops, served under captains John T. Wilson and John Alexander Phillips that augmented the British Army force of 700 men under Major Thomas Adair, who successfully led an attack against the west bank of the Mississippi River. This was Britain’s only success at New Orleans. These same Marines later helped to capture Fort Bowyer in Mobile Bay —the last action of the War of 1812.
In 1855, the Royal Marines were renamed the Royal Marines Light Infantry (RMLI). A slight modification to this designation was affected in 1862: Royal Marine Light Infantry. After 1850, the Royal Navy saw limited service at sea until 1914. During this time, Naval planners became more interested in the concept of Naval Brigades, which is to say Royal Marines, augmented by artillery, who would make amphibious landings ahead of naval infantry and conduct skirmishes —a traditional function of light infantry. For most of their history, the Royal Marines have functioned as fusiliers (riflemen). In this capacity, they served with distinction during the First and Second Opium Wars (1839-1860) in China. Every engagement in China was successful save one: when British Admiral Sir James Hope ordered the Marines to make a landing across a wide expanse of mud flats. I will forego any comment about Admiral Hope’s leadership ability.
Royal Marines, along with their American counterparts, played a prominent role during the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1900. See also: Send in the Marines!
Pursuing a career in the Royal Marines was considered “social suicide” through much of the 18th and 19th centuries. Royal Marines had a lower standing than their counterparts in the Royal Navy . In 1907, the British government reduced professional differences between the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. In time, the Royal Marines were elevated to a position of respect within the British forces, although sharing a pint of ale with British Army veterans, one might come away with an entirely different point of view. What British soldiers have never understood, however, is that ARMY stands for “Aren’t Ready to be Marines Yet.”
During the first part of the 20th century, the role of the Royal Marines remained traditional, that is, providing shipboard infantry for security, boarding parties, and amphibious raids. The Marines’ other traditional role while aboard Royal Navy ships was manning gun turrets on battleships or cruisers.
During World War I, Royal Marines landed with the Royal Navy Division in Belgium in 1914 to defend Antwerp. They later participated in the amphibious landings at Gallipoli in 1915 and conducted the Zeebrugge Raid in 1918. After this “war to end all wars,” Royal Marines took part in the allied intervention in post-Revolutionary Russia. In 1919, the 6th Battalion mutinied and was disbanded in disgrace.
In 1922, during post-war demobilization, the Royal Marines were reduced from a strength of 55,000 to around 15,000. To further reduce the costs of maintaining this force in readiness, Royal Marine Artillery (RMA) and Light Infantry units were consolidated in June 1923. Even so, tremendous political pressure was applied to disbanding the Royal Marines altogether. As a compromise, opposing politicians agreed to a Royal Marine organization of 9,500 troops. To accomplish this, the RMA was deactivated; henceforth, the title Royal Marine would apply to the entire Corps. Artillery organizations would be part of the force structure, but on a much smaller scale. After consolidation, the Royal Marine full-dress uniform became dark blue and red; Royal Marine officers and SNCOs continue to wear scarlet uniforms as part of their mess dress kit. The rank structure was also modified. The private of infantry and gunner of artillery were replaced by the rank of Marine.
In World War II, Royal Marine shipboard detachments continued to make amphibious raids with limited objectives, such as accepting the surrender of French Axis forces. Initially, Royal Marine infantry units were organized as Mobile Naval Base Defense Organizations (which were similar to U. S. Marine Corps’ Advanced Base Defense Battalion). The MNBDO’s took part in the defense of Crete, Malaya, and Singapore.
In 1942, Royal Marine infantry battalions were reorganized as commando units. The Division command structure became a Special Service Brigade command. In total, four Special Service (Commando) Brigades were raised during World War II. Nine RMC battalions were created, numbered from 40 Commando to 48 Commando. Brigades were task organized, which means that Royal Marine commando organizational structure depended on their assigned mission. In the early years, British Army units served alongside the Marines within Commando Brigades. Support troops served as landing craft crew and saw extensive action on D-Day in June 1944. In January 1945, an additional two RM brigades were formed, both organized as conventional infantry. Of these, only one saw any action during World War II.
Several Royal Marine officers served as pilots during the World War II, one of these leading the air attack that sank the German warship Konigsberg. Eighteen RMOs commanded fleet air squadrons, and after the formation of the British Pacific Fleet, Royal Marine aviation assets were well-represented in final operations against Japan. Squadron commanders were usually captains and majors. Lieutenant Colonel R. C. Hay commanded an air group on board HMS Indefatigable. Meanwhile, Royal Marine detachments continued to serve aboard Royal Navy cruisers and battleships.
During World War II, the Victoria Cross  was awarded to only one Marine: Acting Corporal Thomas P. Hunter, aged 21 years, of 43 Commando, during combat operations at Lake Comacchio, Italy. On 2 April 1945, Hunter commanded a Bren gun (light machine gun) section.
According to the citation for this award, 43 Commando was advancing to its final objective and was within 400 yards of an east-west canal. Corporal Hunter observed that the enemy was entrenched around a group of houses south of the canal and realized that his troops, who were following in trace of his advance, would soon be exposed to enemy fire in an area devoid of cover or concealment. Seizing his light machine gun, Hunter charged alone across two hundred yards of open ground. The Germans engaged Hunter with no fewer than nine automatic weapons. Attracting enemy fire away from his men, and demonstrating a complete disregard for his own safety, Corporal Hunter assaulted the German position while firing from the hip, changing magazines as he ran, killing several of the enemy and clearing houses of all enemy troops. Six German soldiers surrendered to him, while the remaining enemy fled across a footbridge to the north bank of the canal. Taking a position atop of pile of rubble, Corporal Hunter engaged the enemy’s new positions with deadly accurate fire while encouraging his men to take up secure positions within the cluster of houses. It was then that Corporal Hunter received the bulk of enemy’s fire and he was killed. Corporal Hunter is remembered at ten separate locations throughout the United Kingdom.
In 1946, British Army Commandos were disbanded, leaving the Royal Marines to continue the commando role (with supporting army elements).
At the outset of the Korean War, 41 Commando was reformed for service with the United States Navy. After the landing of the X Corps at Wonsan, 41 Commando joined the 1st U. S. Marine Division. 41 Commando formed the nucleus of Task Force Drysdale under Lieutenant Colonel Douglas B. Drysdale, Royal Marines, with one US Marine Corps rifle company and one US Army rifle company, and attachments of rolling stock and fought their way from Koto-ri to Hagaru-ri after the Chinese erected blockades along the north road. It then took part in the epic Battle of the Chosin Reservoir. 41 Commando subsequently implemented several raids against Communist Chinese forces. The Royal Marines were withdrawn from the Korean conflict in 1951. For its service in the Korean War, 41 Commando was awarded the United States Presidential Unit Citation and Colonel Drysdale received the Silver Star Medal for valor.
Between 1948 and 1960, elements of the Royal Marines participated at various times and places in the Malayan Emergency . In 1955, 45 Commando was dispatched to Cyprus to undertake anti-terrorist operations against Greek Cypriot insurgents. In 1956, 3 Commando Brigade with 40, 42, and 45 Royal Commando took part in the Suez Crisis. This event marked the first time the Royal Marines employed helicopters in vertical assault operations. British and French forces ultimately defeated the Egyptians, but US diplomatic activities helped to defuse the crisis. 40 and 41 Commando were sent to Borneo at various times to help defuse tensions between Indonesian-Malayan belligerents. In January 1964, elements of the Tanzanian Army mutinied. The United Kingdom responded by dispatching 41 Commando from Devon and landing Royal Marine elements from HMS Bulwark. The Tanzanian revolt was put down rather quickly, but it took another six months to disarm rebel elements of the Tanzanian military.
Royal Marine units regularly deployed to Northern Ireland to help contain that conflict. Referred to as “the Troubles,” the Northern Ireland conflict lasted from 1969 through 1998. In total, 24 Royal Marines died as a result of protestant snipers and bombers.
Between 1974 and 1984, the Royal Marines undertook three United Nations peacekeeping tours of duty in Cyprus. The first was operation took place after the Turkish invasion in November 1974. 41 Commando took over responsibility for the Limassol District from the 2nd Battalion Guard’s Brigade. 41 Commando was the first Royal Marine unit to wear the light blue beret of the United Nations Command.
When Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands in April 1982, the United Kingdom dispatched a task force to recapture them, which given the necessity for an amphibious assault, included the Royal Marine Commando. British troops landed at San Carlos Water on East Falkland and moved across the entire island to the capital city of Stanley. In Royal Marine parlance, the troops “yomped” across the Falklands, which means a long-distance force march in full kit. Stanley fell to the Brits on 14 June 1982. Major General Jeremy Moore, Royal Marines, commanded the land forces in the Falklands Conflict.
During the 1991 Gulf War, 24 Marines from Kilo Company, 41 Commando served as six-man raiding teams aboard Royal Navy destroyers and frigates. They were mainly used as ship boarding parties. Elements of 3 Commando Brigade were deployed to provide aid and protection to Iraqi Kurds in Northern Iraq as part of Operation Safe Haven.
After the turn of the century, Royal Marines began converting from their light-infantry role towards an expanded force-protection role. The British refer to this reorganization as Commando-21: the establishment of two battalion-sized commando units (which included 40 Commando and 45 Commando. Each organization consists of six company sized units, and these organized into “troops,” (platoons). The change has given the Royal Marines more firepower, greater mobility, better access to intelligence, and more operational flexibility. The size of each commando is roughly 692 of all ranks. 41 Commando has taken on a specialized maritime mission since 2017 under the auspices of 3 Commando Brigade.
Now approaching the end of the second decade of the 21st Century, Royal Marines and their American counterparts have never been closer. They share a tradition, a similar mission, and the title Marine goes a very long way in defining who they are. To cement this tie, British flight officers have begun training alongside Marine Corps aviators; US Marine officers serve in exchange billets in the United Kingdom, and lately, junior Royal Marine officers (three so far) have begun serving 18-month tours within US Marine Corps ground units. US Marine Corps lieutenants have not yet started serving in similar capacities in the United Kingdom, but it is likely that this will happen in the future.
Ballantyne, I. Strike from the Sea. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2004
Chappell, M. Wellington’s Peninsula Regiments. Oxford: The Oxford Press, 2004
Moore, J. The First Fleet Marines. Queensland: University of Queensland Press, 1989
Mountbatten, L. Combined Operations: The Official Story of the Commando. New York: Macmillan Company, 1943
Poyntz, W. H. Per Mare, Per Terram: Reminiscences of Thirty-two Years’ Military, Naval, and Constabulary Service. London: Print & Publishing Company, 1892
Thompson, J. The Royal Marines, from Sea Soldiers to a Special Force. London: Pan Books, 2001
 A mole is a massive stone structure constructed to serve as a pier, a breakwater, or causeway between bodies of water.
 The operation at Belle Isle was an amphibious expedition intended to capture the French island off the Brittany coast during the Seven Years’ War. The initial attack was repulsed, but a second landing forced a beach head. After a siege of six weeks, the French surrendered (as they almost always do) and this gave the British total control of the island. Belle Isle was returned to French authority after the Treaty of Paris in 1763.
 The First Fleet consisted of eleven ships that departed from Portsmouth, England on 13 May to establish a penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The fleet involved two Royal Navy vessels, three store ships, and six convict transports carrying between 1,000 to 1,500 convicts, Marines, seamen, civil officers, and free people. From England, the fleet sailed to Rio de Janeiro, east to Cape Town and then to Botany Bay … arriving between 18 to 20 January 1788.
 The Congreve rocket was designed and developed by Sir William Congreve in 1804; it was an adaptation of the Mysorean rockets used against the British in India. By 1813, there were three classes of Congreve rockets: heavy, medium, and light. Heavy rockets consisted of between 100 and 300 pounds but were generally regarded as too cumbersome to use in the field. Medium rockets were between 24 and 42 pounds, and from two to four feet in length. Light rockets were between 6 and 18 pounds and from 16 to 25 inches in length. Medium and light rockets could be case shot, shell, or explosive.
 Major General John Robyns, Royal Marines, (1780-1857) served with distinction during the Napoleonic Wars, including Martinique, and the War of 1812. In America, Robyn faced off against the U. S. Marines at Bladensburg, Washington, Baltimore, and New Orleans.
 This was true in the United States, as well. My grandmother was devastated when I joined the U. S. Marine Corps in 1962. Every member of my family up until then had served in the Army. It wasn’t until 1965 when my uncle (my grandmother’s son, a career army NCO) was able to convince her that the Marines was the right choice for me. I was, at the time, a very proud and somewhat cocky corporal of Marines. By the time I received my commission in 1975, Grandmother had fully embraced my service and bragged to her few remaining friends that her grandson was a United States Marine.
 The Victoria Cross is the United Kingdom’s highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy.
 Following World War II, British authorities attempted to form the Malayan Union. Their goal was to create a state wherein all citizens (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) would have equal stature, but many ethnic Malayans, along with regional rulers, rejected this scheme. Armed insurgency first occurred on 16 June 1948 when three of four targeted plantation managers were assassinated. The ensuring guerrilla war involved pro-communist, anti-British forces who engaged in terror tactics like those employed by the Viet Cong during the Viet Nam War. Nearly 12,000 people lost their lives in this 12-year conflict.
The 4th Marines: From Harry Truman’s War to the Street Without Joy
Among the effects of Harry S. Truman’s presidential incompetence came the Korean War —and along with that, the re-activation of the 4th Marine Regiment. The war began in late June 1950. A stalemate in the war two years later resulted in the re-activation of the 3rd Marine Division and within that organization on 2 September 1952, the 4th Marines —Colonel Robert O. Bowen, commanding. The regiment’s initial units included Headquarters & Service Company (H&SCo), Anti-Tank Company, 4.2-inch Mortar Company, and the 1st Battalion (1/4). Within a short time, the regiment added 2/4 and 3/4. A fourth battalion came on line in January 1953 but was deactivated within a period of seven months.
After reactivation, the 4th Marines began a series of pre-combat deployment training; spooling up to speed would take another six months. The 3rd Marine Division was alerted to its far-east deployment shortly before the Korean Armistice. Despite cessation of fighting, the 3rdMarDiv relocated from Camp Pendleton, California to Japan. The regiment’s new home was Nara, on the island of Honshu. Arriving too late to participate in the Korean War, the 4th Marines became a garrison force whose responsibilities included the defense of southern Honshu and its readiness  for rapid deployment to potential hot-spots in the Far East. In January 1954, 3/4 was assigned to task of escorting former Chinese Communist soldiers who wanted to go to Taiwan (rather than be repatriated to mainland China) from Inchon, South Korea .
Eighteen-months later, the 4th Marines (and supporting units) was relocated to Hawaii where the regiment became the principal ground combat element (GCE) of the 1st Provisional Marine MAGTF at Kaneohe Bay. Once established in Hawaii, the regiment began an intensive program of coordinated training with the air combat element (ACE), which at the time was Marine Aircraft Group (MAG)-13. The MAGTF was redesignated as the 1st Marine Brigade on 1 May 1956. The advent of combat helicopters led the regiment into vertical envelopment training. The 4th Marines was the first GCE to live and train with a co-located ACE. As a Pacific area force in readiness, the 1st Marine Brigade (1stMarBde) engaged in rigorous training. Maneuver areas included the California coast, Taiwan, and the Philippine Islands. In March 1961, BLT 1/4 was diverted from its original destination (California) to the Far East when a communist insurgency threatened Laos. The battalion was never sent into Laos, however.
The President of South Vietnam between 1954 and 1963 was Ngo Dinh Diem, and man whom the United States government decided to support because he was well-educated, smooth in his presentation, a true patriot to his country’s cause, and also because he shared the same religion with the President of the United States, John F. Kennedy. A devout Roman Catholic, Diem was staunchly anti-Communist, a nationalist, and socially conservative. He also shared the same long-term goals with his enemy in the north: Ho Chi Minh. Both Ngo and Ho wanted to unify Vietnam under their own flag.
Between 1954-1957, South Vietnam experienced a large-scale resistance to Ngo’s policies from the areas outlying the national capital, Saigon. Dissidents included the thugs in minor cities who fancied themselves as war lords, and Buddhist monks who seemed to keep South Vietnamese peasants in a constant state of instability. Ngo responded rather harshly, as he suspected that the culprits behind these destabilizing demonstrations were North Vietnamese insurgents. His assumption was mostly correct; when the country was politically divided in 1954, about 90,000 hard-core communists remained in the South and Ho’s government encouraged these to engage in low-level insurgencies.
Upon Kennedy’s election to the presidency in 1960, Dwight D. Eisenhower warned him against becoming entangled in the Indochinese conflict. In 1961, the United States had around 50,000 troops based in South Korea. Kennedy faced a four-pronged crisis in the early days of his administration: Bay of Pigs fiasco, construction of the Berlin Wall, the Pathet Lao movement in Laos, and the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962). The onslaught of communist schemes to disrupt the world balance of power led Kennedy to conclude that the United States and its free-world allies could not sustain another “failure” confronting global communism. This particular insecurity helped to drive Kennedy’s space program. Kennedy was thus determined to “draw a line in the sand” to prevent another communist victory in Vietnam .
Kennedy’s policy toward Vietnam initially mirrored that of President Eisenhower, who saw no benefit to the United States by committing large-scale military forces to solve the Vietnam problem. Given the poor state of South Vietnam’s military, however, Kennedy did continue Eisenhower’s program to provide US Army Special Forces to help train the South Vietnamese Army (ARVN) across a wide range of areas: ground combat, air combat, and logistical resupply. Kennedy advisors tried to convince the president to send US troops to Vietnam “disguised as flood relief workers .” Others tried to convince Kennedy that sending troops to Vietnam in large numbers would be a tragic mistake. By late 1963, Kennedy had increased the number of military advisors serving in Vietnam from 900 (Eisenhower) to 16,000. On 2 November 1963, as the US government officials pretended not to know what was going on, President Ngo and his brother was assassinated and the man ultimately responsible for this was John F. Kennedy. Twenty days later, Kennedy himself was assassinated and power shifted to Lyndon Baines Johnson. Johnson wanted an escalation of the war and lied to the American people to achieve it. North Vietnamese patrol boats did not launch assaults against the USS Maddox (DD 731) on 2 August 1964; the Gulf of Tonkin Incident that precipitated War in Vietnam never happened.
Discounting a rather large number of special operations troops serving as advisors to the South Vietnamese government, the 3rd Marine Division on Okinawa was the first ground combat force committed to the Vietnam War. The 4th Marines received their warning order almost immediately after the decision was made to commit the Marines. Forward elements of the 3rdMarDiv began landing at Da Nang on 8 March 1965; the 4th Marines started arriving from Hawaii (via Okinawa) in mid-April 1965, the first battalion to arrive being BLT 3/4, which deployed to the ancient Imperial City of Hue. Regimental HQ, 1/4 and 2/4 disembarked at Chu Lai on 7 May 1965. All 3rdMarDiv units came under the operational control of the III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF).
In Vietnam, the nature of the war changed the organization of Marine units. Since the conflict in Vietnam was often fought at or below the battalion level, one or more battalions of a regiment were frequently fighting under the operational control of another regiment. As an example, a regiment exercising operational control of two or more battalions belonging to another regiment could enlarge its operations to that of a brigade. In the summer of 1965, the 4th Marine Regiment exercised operational control over its own first and second battalions, but also 3/3 and 3/12 and their supporting elements. The 3rd Marines, meanwhile, had operational control over 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines.
Combat for the 4th Marines in Vietnam arrived on 19 April when 3/4 (assigned Tactical Area of Responsibility (TAOR) of Hue City and Phu Bai) defenses were probed by communist forces. Two days later, 1/4 and 2/4 (assigned responsibility for Chu Lai) also experienced light probing attacks. Vigorous patrolling operations were implemented almost immediately. Such activities were variously called security patrols and “search and clear” operations. They were later expanded to include security operations for other than military installations, and these in turn expanded to a full measure search for the enemy so that he could be destroyed (search and destroy operations).
Combat in Vietnam was limited by its weather, terrain, and the nature of an elusive enemy. Marines (indeed, all ground forces) were beset with guerrilla warfare tactics, including anti-personnel mines, booby traps, and ambushes combined with the placement of punji-sticks (sharpened sticks dipped in human excrement) —all designed to hamper the progress of Marine operations. Before the arrival of helicopters, Marines sought out the enemy on foot, and their aggressive operations kept the enemy off balance within the 4th Marines TAOR.
The first major engagement was the regimental sized Operation Starlite —a combined amphibious and vertical assault against enemy fortified positions on the Van Tuong Peninsula, 15 miles south of the Chu Lai air base. 2nd Battalion, 4th Marines was air-lifted into the jump-off point on 18 August 1965 and began a drive to the sea to block off any escape route. Within nine days, the 1st Viet Cong Regiment was decisively defeated. The operation prevented the VC from attacking the Chu Lai air base.
In addition to engaging the enemy in small-unit actions, the 4th Marines participated in several major operations in Vietnam, some of these conducted in phases over extended periods of time. They were Starlite, Hastings (1966), Prairie (1966-67), Deckhouse VI/Desoto (16 Feb-3 Mar 1967), Prairie IV (April-May 1967), Hickory (April-May 1967), Kingfisher (July-October 1967), and Kentucky (November 1967-February 1969). Elements of the 4th Marines also participated in Operation Jay, Lancaster II, Scotland II, Napoleon/Saline, the Battle of Dai Do (also, Dong Ha). Most of these combat operations involved several organizations (as previously discussed), including 2/1, 3/3, 1/4, 2/4, 3/4, 2/9, 2/12, and various units of the ARVN and RVNMD .
The Dong Ha Combat Base (also known as Camp Spillman) was a joint Marine Corps-US Army multi-purpose base along Route 9 in northwest of Quang Tri in central Vietnam. The base was first used by 3/4 in late April 1966. In late May 2/4 was deployed to Dong Ha to support Operation Reno, which was designed to render support to the ARVN forces assigned to this region. The only US casualties during RENO involved a USAF team of six radar technicians who were ambushed and killed on 5 June 1966. The Commanding Officer of 2/4 (LtCol P. X. Kelly ) offered to provide security for the radar team before it departed from Dong Ha, but this offer was refused.
Beginning in mid-July, Dong Ha also served as a Marine Corps helicopter base of operations for flight detachments of HMM-163 (December 1966-January 1967), HMM-164 (July 1966-March 1967), HMM-263(August 1966-April 1967), HMM-265 (April-June 1967), HMM-361 (June-November 1967), HMM-363 (April-June 1967, August-November 1967), and VMO-2 (July 1966-November 1967). Dong Ha also served as an advance logistics base. Army and Marine Corps artillery units used Dong Ha as a fire support base, and in October 1966, Dong Ha became the forward headquarters of the 3rdMarDiv; several operations (listed above) were initiated from the Dong Ha Combat Base. During 1968, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) made repeated attacks against Dong Ha, on one occasion destroying its ammunition depot. In each attack, NVA forces experienced heavy casualties.
There were many accomplishments of the 4th Marines in Vietnam, a few of which were exceptional examples of Marines thinking outside the box. Notwithstanding the regiment’s role in finding and killing the enemy, there was another war: the effort to win the hearts and minds of the Vietnamese people. The 4th Marines undertook civic action programs almost from the start of their arrival in Vietnam. In May 1965, the regiment distributed nearly 1,000 pounds of clothing to the villagers at Chu Lai—clothing that had been collected by the dependents of these Marines in Hawaii and sent directly to the regiment. Marines also pitched in with “self-help” projects in Chu Lai and Hue City designed to improve the living conditions of the villagers: digging wells, road-grading, clearing home sites. The Golden Fleece program aided villagers in the harvesting of rice, protecting them from harassment by the Viet Cong, and protecting the crop from confiscation by local VC thugs.
Operation County Fair was a program that originated within the 4th Marines (with the blessings of the Commanding General, FMF Pacific, LtGen Victor H. Krulak). Its purpose was to pacify select villages known to harbor elements of the Viet Cong. 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines initiated a Combined Action Company, and from this concept evolved the Combined Action Platoons. In the summer of 1965, the 1st ARVN Division assigned a number of Vietnamese Popular Forces (PFs) units in the Phu Bai area to operate under the auspices of 3/4. Integrating Marine rifle squads with PFs initially fell under the leadership and direction of First Lieutenant Paul R. Ek (then known as Joint Action Company). The concept was one way of reestablishing government control over rural villages while freeing the people from the terror and intimidation of local VC elements. See also: Vietnam Counterinsurgency and Combined Action Platoon (in six parts).
One an example of the Navy-Marine Corps ability to improvise, adapt, and overcome all obstacles were operations conducted by Amphibious Ready Group (Task Force 76.5) and Special Landing Force (Task Force 79.5) (ARG/SLF). It was a powerful and versatile formation capable of striking along the length of the South Vietnam Littoral and inland. Initially, the ARG consisted of three to four ships, including an amphibious assault ship (LPH), and dock landing ship (LSD), an attack transport ship (APA) or amphibious transport dock (LPD), and a tank landing ship (LST). The SLF was composed of a medium helicopter squadron (HMM), a Battalion Landing Team (reinforced with artillery, armor, engineer, and other support units as required). The SLF came ashore either as part of an amphibious assault (sea-land) or by vertical assault (air), or both. While at sea, Marines of the SLF came under the administrative control of the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade; when gearing up for a landing, they came under the operational control of the senior Marine commander in the area of their operations.
Operation Deckhouse VI/Beacon Hill was the first major operation of 1967 for the 4th Marines. 1st Battalion, 4th Marines (1/4) had been temporarily assigned to Okinawa for rest and refit. BLT 1/4 was directed to make an amphibious landing near Sa Huyn in the southern portion of I Corps. The battalion stormed ashore in search of Viet Cong forces on 16 February. Nine days later, the Marines reembarked aboard ARG shipping and within a few days made another amphibious assault 200-miles farther north, landing near Gio Linh. After a combined operation lasting 22 days, Marines had located and killed 334 Viet Cong. The battalion’s casualties were 29 killed, 230 wounded.
The northern I Corps region continued to be the scene of heavy fighting throughout the year. All three 4th Marines’ battalions were deployed against NVA and VC main line units. Delta Company 1/4 was hit hard at Con Tien on 8 May; following a mortar assault of some 250-rounds, two enemy battalions assaulted the Marine Company. In spite of these overwhelming numbers, the Delta Company Marines repulsed the NVA/VC attack, and although suffering 49 killed and over 100 wounded, the Marines killed 210 communists and captured ten. Four days later, the battalion commander was himself wounded three times in successive enemy assaults. In each instance, the Marines soundly defeated the NVA/VC units. CG III MAF concluded that the NVA and VC main line units were using the DMZ as a staging area for attacks against US forces.
General Cushman ordered Operation Hickory: Six infantry battalions with artillery support assaulted the NVA 324B Division within the DMZ. Marine units included 3/4, 2/3, 1/9, 2/9, 3/9, 2/26, and 1/12. On the morning of 18 May 2/26 and 2/9 began an advance from Con Thien to press the NVA while 3/4 landed by helicopter on the Ben Hai river as a blocking force. Five Marine battalions assaulted a complex of heavily fortified bunkers within the so-called demilitarized zone. At the conclusion of Hickory, 362 additional enemy had been killed with 30 taken as POWs; Marine losses were 142 KIA and 896 WIA. A separate operation in the area involving the 1st ARVN Division killed another 340 NVA/VC with 22 of their own killed and 122-wounded. Combined, Operations Lam Son 54, Hickory, Belt Tight, and Beau Charger ended with the removal of the entire civilian populations. From that point on, the DMZ and northern I Corps became a free fire zone.
In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced that the US effort in the Vietnam War would be reduced. It was time to turn this effort over to the Republic of Vietnam armed forces. The 9th Marines departed Vietnam in August; the 3rd Marine Division began its stand down in September. The 4th Marines was ordered to Okinawa, 1/4 departing the combat zone on 22 October. All 3rdMarDiv units were out of Vietnam by November 1969.
The 4th Marine Regiment has a long and proud history of service to the United States of America and her people. Whatever mission assigned, the Marines of the 4th Regiment have distinguished themselves time and again through courage, devotion to one another, and unparalleled sacrifice in the completion of their mission. Today, the 4th Marine Regiment remains part of the 3rd Marine Division and while its battalions continue to rotate in and out of global hotspots, the regimental headquarters is anchored at Camp Schwab, Okinawa.
Organization of the United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 5-12D. Washington: Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 2015.
Santelli, J. S. A Brief History of the Fourth Marines. Washington: U. S. Marine Corps Historical Division, 1970
 Readiness infers continual combat training. During this period of time, the 4th Marines participated in training exercises in Japan, on Okinawa, and on the island of Iwo Jima.
 Even peacetime and training duty is hazardous in the military. During 3/4’s deployment to Inchon, a landing craft capsized in Inchon Harbor resulting in the death of 27 Marines and two Navy Corpsmen.
 Kennedy told James Reston of the NYT, “Now we have a problem making our power credible; Vietnam looks like the place.”
 Another hair-brained scheme devised by General Maxwell Taylor and Walt Rostow.
 Republic of Vietnam Marine Division (SưĐoàn Thủy Quân Lục Chiến) (1953-1975).
 Paul X. Kelly served as the 28th Commandant of the Marine Corps from 1 July 1983 to 30 June 1987.