John Twiggs Myers (29 January 1871—17 April 1952) was the son of Colonel Abraham C. Myers, for whom Fort Myers, Florida is named, the grandson of Major General David E. Twiggs, and the great-grandson of General John Twiggs, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Born in Wiesbaden, Germany, Handsome Jack graduated from the U. S. Naval Academy in 1892 and received an appointment as Assistant Engineer two years later. In March 1895, the Marine Corps offered Jack Myers a commission as a second lieutenant.
Despite the fact that few people know of John Twiggs Myers, Hollywood film producers have portrayed this colorful Marine officer in two popular films that were loosely based on his exploits as a “tall, roguishly handsome, global soldier of the sea.” The first film was titled 55 Days at Peking, starring Charlton Heston in the role of Myers, a chap named Major Matt Lewis commanding American Marines during the Boxer Rebellion. In the second film, The Wind and the Lion, actor Steve Kanaly played the role of Captain Jerome. In the actual event, Jerome was John Twiggs Myers.
After completing his studies at the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island, and just prior to the outbreak of the Spanish-American War, the Marine Corps ordered Jack Myers to active duty. As Commanding Officer of the Marine Detachment, USS Charleston, Myers participated in the capture of Guam from its Spanish garrison, and then later sailed to the Philippine Islands, where he was transferred to USS Baltimore.
During the Philippine-American War, Myers led several amphibious landings against Filipino insurgents, notably at the Battle of Olongapo and the Battle of Zapote River. His courage under fire in both engagements earned him recognition as an exceptional officer. The Marine Corps promoted Myers to captain toward the end of 1899.
In May 1900, Captain Myers accompanied the USS Newark to China. Upon arrival, his navy commanding officer ordered Myers ashore to command a detachment of 48 Marines (including then Private Dan Daly) and 3 sailors. Myers’ assignment in Peking was to protect the American Legation. Because of his reputation for intrepidity under fire, the most vulnerable section of Legation’s defense, the so-called Tartar Wall, became Myers’s responsibility.
The Tartar Wall rose to a height of 45 feet with a bulwark of around forty feet in width that overlooked the foreign legation. Should this edifice fall into Chinese hands, the entire foreign legation would be exposed to the Boxer’s long rifle fires. Each day, Chinese Boxers erected barricades, inching ever closer to the German position (on the eastern wall), and the American position (on the western approach).
Inexplicably, the Germans abandoned their position (and their American counterparts), leaving the Marines to defend the entire section. At 2 a.m. on the night of 3 July 1900, Captain Myers, supported by 26 British Marines and 15 Russians, led an assault against the Chinese barricade, killing 20 Chinese and expelling the rest of them from the Tartar Wall. During this engagement, Myers received a serious spear wound to his leg. As a result of his tenacity under extremely dire conditions, the Marine Corps advanced Myers to the rank of Major and later awarded him the Brevet Medal (See notes), which in 1900 was the equivalent of the Medal of Honor for officers. At that time, Marine officers were ineligible to receive the Medal of Honor.
While recovering from his wounds, Myers served as Provost Marshal on American Samoa. He was thereafter assigned to command the Marine Barracks at Bremerton, Washington.
In 1904, Myers commanded the Marine Detachment, USS Brooklyn, sent to Tangiers, Morocco to address the Perdicaris Incident. Afterward, Major Myers completed the Naval War College, commanded the NCO School at Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C., and later commanded the Barracks for several months. In August 1906, Major Meyers assumed command of the 1st Marine Regiment in the Philippines. One year later, the Marine Corps ordered Myers to serve aboard USS West Virginia as Fleet Marine Officer of the Asiatic Fleet. In 1911, Meyers completed the U. S. Army Field Officer’s School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and after graduating from the Army War College in 1912, Myers assumed command of a battalion with the Second Provisional Brigade at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. A year later he served in command of the Marine Barracks, Honolulu, Hawaii.
In 1916, then Lieutenant Colonel Meyers commanded the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines until assigned as Fleet Marine Officer, U.S. Atlantic Fleet where he served until August 1918. He then assumed command of the Marine Barracks at Parris Island, South Carolina through November 1918.
In 1921, the Marine Corps appointed Colonel Myers to serve as Inspector General of the Department of the Pacific — serving in that position for three years. In 1925, Myers assumed command of the 1st Marine Brigade in Haiti. Following his service as Commanding General, Department of the Pacific in 1935, with 46 years of adventurous service, Major General Myers retired from active service. In recognition of his distinguished service in 1942, the Marine Corps advanced Jack Myers to the grade of lieutenant general on the retired list.
John Twiggs Myers passed away at the age of 81 at his home in Coconut Grove, Florida on 17 April 1952. He was the last living recipient of the Brevet Medal.
1. Myers was one of only 20 Marine Corps officers to receive this medal.
Artillery equipment and technology may be an art form, but its application is pure science. Training Marine Corps cannon-cockers for service in World War II included lessons learned from every engagement in which the Marine Corps participated from the beginning of the First World War. Colonel Georg Bruchmüller of the Imperial Germany Army, an artillerist, pioneered what became known as accurately predicted fire. Predicted fire is a technique for employing “fire for effect” artillery without alerting the enemy with ranging fire. Catching the enemy off guard is an essential aspect of combat. To facilitate this, the U.S. Army Field Artillery School developed the concept of fire direction control during the 1930s, which the Marine Corps incorporated within all artillery regiments as they came online in the early 1940s. However, the proximity of artillery targets to friendly forces was of particular concern to the Marines, operating as they did on relatively small islands. There is nothing simple about providing accurate and on-time artillery support to front-line forces; the performance of Marine artillery units during World War II was exceptional.
In early May 1945, following the defeat of Nazi Germany (but before the collapse of Imperial Japan), President Truman ordered a general demobilization of the armed forces. It would take time to demobilize twelve-million men and women. Military leaders always anticipated demobilization following the “second war to end all wars.” While men were still fighting and dying in the Pacific War, those who participated in the European theater and were not required for occupation duty prepared to return home to their loved ones. The plan for general demobilization was code-named Operation Magic Carpet. Demobilization fell under the authority of the War Shipping Administration and involved hundreds of ships.
Men and women of all the Armed Forces were, in time, released from their service obligation and sent on their way. Many of these people, aided by the Serviceman’s Readjustment Act (1944) (also called the GI Bill), went back to academic and trade schools. Between 1945 and 1946, America’s war veterans returned home to restart their lives — they married, started families, built homes, and settled down.
But to suggest that life was a bowl of cherries in 1946 would be a gross over-simplification of that time because the transition to peacetime America was difficult. War costs were tremendous. President Truman believed he should transfer funds earmarked for the armed forces to social programs. He and others in his cabinet were concerned that if the government did not pursue frugal policies, the United States might once more enter into an economic depression.
Having been asked to suspend wage increases during the war, the ink was still wet on the surrender documents when labor unions began organizing walk-outs in the steel and coal industries. Labor strikes destabilized U.S. industries when manufacturing plants underwent a massive re-tooling for peacetime production. Americans experienced housing shortages, limited availability of consumer goods, an inflated economy, and farmers refused to sell their yield at “cost.”
Still, even in recognizing the administration’s challenges, President Truman’s response was inept and short-sighted. Our average citizens, the men, and women who the government imposed rationing upon for four years, deeply resented the high cost of consumer goods. This condition only grew worse when Truman accelerated the removal of mandatory depression-era restrictions on goods and services. Increased demand for goods drove prices beyond what most Americans could afford to pay. When national rail services threatened to strike, Truman seized the railroads and forced the hand of labor unions —which went on strike anyway.
But for Some, the War Continued
In the immediate aftermath of Japan’s unconditional surrender, the 1stMarDiv embarked by ship for service in China. The 11th Marines, assigned to Tientsin at the old French arsenal, performed occupation duty, which involved the disarmament and repatriation of Japanese forces. Officially, our Marines took no part in the power struggle between Chinese Nationalists and Communists. What did happen is that the Marines had to defend themselves against unwarranted attacks by Chinese Communist guerrillas. By the fall of 1945, China was, once more, in an all-out civil war.
The task assigned to Marines was more humanitarian than military. By preventing communists from seizing land routes and rail systems, and by guarding coal shipments and coal fields, Marines attempted to prevent millions of Chinese peasants from freezing to death during the upcoming winter months. But suffering peasants was precisely what the Chinese Communists wanted to achieve, and Marines standing in the way became “targets of opportunity.”
Truman’s rapid demobilization placed these China Marines in greater danger. As the Truman administration ordered units deactivated, manpower levels dropped, and unit staffing fell below acceptable “combat readiness” postures. Some replacements were sent to China, but they were primarily youngsters just out of boot camp with no clear idea of what was going on in China. Losses in personnel forced local commanders to consolidate their remaining assets. Eventually, the concern was that these forward-deployed Marines might not be able to defend themselves.
In September 1946, for example, the 3rd Battalion, 11th Marines (3/11) vacated Tientsin and joined the 7th Marines at Pei Tai-Ho. Within 30 days, most Marine guards along railways and roadways withdrew, turning their duties over to the Nationalist Chinese Army. Some of us may recall how Truman’s China policy turned out.
In preparation for the 1948 elections, Truman made it clear that he identified himself as a “New Deal” Democrat; he wanted a national health insurance program, demanded that Congress hand him social services programs, sought repeal of the Taft-Harley Act, and lobbied for the creation of the United Nations — for which the United States would pay the largest share.
“It is customary in democratic countries to deplore expenditure on armaments as conflicting with the requirements of the social services. There is a tendency to forget that the most important social service that a government can do for its people is to keep them alive and free.”
—Sir John “Jack” Slessor, Air Marshal, Royal Air Force
Harry Truman ignored this and other good advice when he decided that the United States could no longer afford a combat-ready military force, given all his earmarks for social programs. Truman ordered a drastic reduction to all US military services through his Secretary of Defense.
By late 1949/early 1950, Truman and Secretary of Defense Louis A. Johnson gutted the military services despite multiple warning bells in Korea. Johnson gave the Chief of Naval Operations a warning that the days of the United States Navy were numbered. He told the CNO that the United States no longer needed a naval establishment — the United States had an air force. In early January 1950, Secretary of State Dean Acheson, during a speech at the National Press Club, outlined America’s global defensive sphere —omitting South Korea and Formosa. The Soviet Union, Communist China, and Communist North Korea were very interested in what Mr. Acheson did not say.
In June 1950, budget cuts reduced the entire Marine Corps FMF from a wartime strength of 300,000 Marines to less than 28,000 men. Most artillery regiments were reduced to an understaffed regimental headquarters and a single battalion with less than 300 men. After digesting Acheson’s January speech for six months, North Korea (backed by the Soviet Union), invaded South Korea three hours before dawn on 25 June 1950.
In March 1949, President Truman ordered Johnson to decrease further DoD expenditures. Truman, Johnson, and Truman-crony Stuart Symington (newly appointed Secretary of the Air Force) believed that the United States’ monopoly on nuclear weapons would act as an effective deterrent to communist aggression. There was no better demonstration of Truman’s delusion than when North Korea invaded South Korea.
North Korea’s invasion threw the entire southern peninsula into chaos. U.S. Army advisors, American civilian officials, South Korean politicians, and nearly everyone who could walk, run, or ride, made a beeline toward the southern city of Pusan. President Truman authorized General MacArthur, serving as Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) (whose headquarters was in Tokyo), to employ elements of the Eighth U.S. Army to Korea to stop the NKPA advance. The problem was that the U. S. Army’s occupation force in Japan was not ready for another war. Truman’s defense cuts had reduced military manpower levels, impaired training, and interrupted the maintenance of combat equipment (including radios, motorized vehicles, tracked vehicles, artillery pieces, and aircraft) to such an extent that not one of the U.S. Armed Forces was ready for the Korean emergency.
The military’s unpreparedness for war was only one of several consequences of Truman’s malfeasance. U.S. forces in Europe and Asia, whose primary interest was indulging the mysteries of Asian and German culture, were dangerously exposed to Soviet aggression. Had the Soviet Union decided to launch a major assault on Europe, they would have slaughtered U.S. military forces. Military personnel had become lazy and apathetic to their mission. Mid-level and senior NCOs enriched themselves in black market activities, senior officers played golf and attended sycophantic soirees, and junior officers —the wise ones— stayed out of the way. But when it came time for the Eighth U.S. Army to “mount out” for combat service in Korea, no one was ready for combat — a fact that contributed to the worst military defeat in American military history — all of it made possible by President Harry S. Truman.
In July 1950, General MacArthur requested a Marine Corps regimental combat team to assist in the defense of the Pusan Perimeter. What MacArthur received, instead, was a Marine Corps combat brigade. HQMC assigned this task to the Commanding General, 1stMarDiv, at Camp Pendleton, California.
The challenge was that to form a combat brigade, HQMC had to reduce manning within every other organization inside the United States and order them to proceed (without delay) to Camp Pendleton. It wasn’t simply an issue of fleshing out the division’s single infantry regiment, the 5th Marines. A combat brigade includes several combat/combat support arms: communications, motor transport, field medical, shore party, combat engineer, ordnance, tanks, artillery, supply, combat services, reconnaissance, amphibian tractors, amphibian trucks, and military police. The brigade would also include an aviation air group formed around Provisional Marine Air Group (MAG)-33, three air squadrons, an observation squadron, and a maintenance/ordnance squadron.
Marine supporting establishments cut their staff to about a third, releasing Marines for combat service from coast-to-coast. HQMC called reservists to active duty — some of these youngsters had yet to attend recruit training. All these things were necessary because, in addition to forming a combat brigade, the JCS ordered the Commandant to reconstitute a full infantry division before the end of August 1950.
Within a few weeks, the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade formed around Brigadier General Edward A. Craig and his assistant (and the air component commander), Brigadier General Thomas J. Cushman. Lieutenant Colonel (Colonel Select) Raymond L. Murray commanded the 5th Marines, including three understrength infantry battalions: 1/5, 2/5, and 3/5.
HQMC re-designated the three artillery battalions of the 10th Marines (at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina) as the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Battalions, 11th Marine Regiment, and immediately transported them to Camp Pendleton. The Korean situation was so dire that the newly appointed Commanding General, 1stMarDiv, Major General Oliver P. Smith, began loading combat units and equipment aboard ships even before the division fully formed. Again, owing to Truman’s budgetary cuts, the re-formation of the 1stMarDiv consumed the total financial resources of the entire Marine Corps for that fiscal year.
One of the more famous engagements of the 11th Marine Regiment during the Korean War came on 7 December 1950 during the breakout from the Chosin Reservoir. Machine-gun fire from a Chinese infantry battalion halted the progress of Marines along the main supply route. Gulf and Hotel Batteries of 2/11 moved forward. In broad daylight and at extremely close range, the cannon-cockers leveled their 105-mm howitzers and fired salvo after salvo into the Chinese communist positions. With no time to stabilize the guns by digging them in, Marines braced themselves against the howitzers to keep them from moving. When the shooting ended, there were 500 dead Chinese, and the enemy battalion had no further capacity to wage war. One Marine officer who witnessed the fight later mused, “Has field artillery ever had a grander hour?”
In a series of bloody operations throughout the war, the men of the 11th Marines supported the 1st Marines, 5th Marines, 7th Marines, and the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division. On more than one occasion, accurate artillery fire devastated Chinese communist forces, made more critical given that poor weather conditions frequently inhibited airstrikes in the battle area.
Despite North Korea’s agreement to open peace talks in June 1951, the brutality of the Korean War continued until 27 July 1953. North Korea frequently used temporary truces and negotiating sessions to regroup its forces for renewed attacks. At these dangerous times, the 11th Marines provided lethal artillery coverage over areas already wrested from communist control, provided on-call fire support to platoon and squad-size combat patrols, and fired propaganda leaflets into enemy-held territories. The regiment returned to Camp Pendleton in March and April 1955.
(Continued Next Week)
Brown, R. J. A Brief History of the 14th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1990
Buckner, D. N. A Brief History of the 10th Marines. Washington: US Marine Corps History Division, 1981
Butler, M. D. Evolution of Marine Artillery: A History of Versatility and Relevance. Quantico: Command and Staff College, 2012.
Emmet, R. A Brief History of the 11th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 1968
Kummer, D. W. U. S. Marines in Afghanistan, 2001-2009. Quantico: U.S. Marine Corps History Division, 2014.
Russ, M. Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, Korea 1950. Penguin Books, 1999.
Shulimson, J., and C. M. Johnson. U.S. Marines in Vietnam: The Landing and the Buildup, 1965. Washington: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1978.
Smith, C. R. A Brief History of the 12th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1972.
Strobridge, T. R. History of the 9th Marines. Quantico: Gray Research Center, 1961, 1967.
 The situation was much worse in Great Britain. Not only were their major cities destroyed by German bombing, but war rationing also lasted through 1954 — including the availability of coal for heating.
 This might be a good time to mention that all the U.S. arms and equipment FDR provided to Mao Ze-dong, to use against the Japanese, but wasn’t, was turned against U.S. Marines on occupation duty in China. Providing potential enemies with lethal weapons to use against American troops is ludicrous on its face, but this practice continues even now.
 Restricted the activities and power of labor unions, enacted in 1947 over the veto of President Truman.
 President Truman had no appreciation for the contributions of the US Marine Corps to the overall national defense; he did not think the nation needed a Corps of Marines, much less afford to retain the Corps, because the US already had a land army (of which he was a member during World War I). He never accepted the fact that the Marine Corps, as a combat force, provided unique strategic skills and in fact, Truman initiated several efforts to dissolve the Marines prior to the National Security Act of 1947, which ultimately protected the Marine Corps from political efforts to disband it.
In seeking to reduce military expenditures between 1921 and 1941, the U.S. government demobilized (most) of its armed forces. Although somewhat reduced in size following the First World War, the Marine Corps served as an intervention force during the so-called Banana Wars. While roundly criticized by anti-Imperialists, the Banana Wars nevertheless prepared Marines for the advent of World War II. Had it not been for those interventions, there would have been no “seasoned” Marine Corps combat leaders in 1941. Moreover, had it not been for the efforts of Colonel Earl Hancock “Pete” Ellis, author of a thesis written at the Navy War College concerning advanced naval bases (1910) and later, the author of Operation Plan 712: Advanced Base Force: Operations in Micronesia, there would have been no amphibious warfare doctrine in 1941, which was critical to the defense of American interests in the Pacific leading up to World War II.
On 7 December 1933, the Secretary of the Navy established the Fleet Marine Force (FMF). Its purpose was to modernize the concept of amphibious warfare — initially published and implemented as the Tentative Landing Operations Manual, 1935. This manual was a doctrinal publication setting forth the theory of landing force operations, organization, and practice. The Landing Operations Manual prescribed new combat organizations and spurred the development of state-of-the-art amphibious landing craft and ship-to-shore tractors. The document also addressed aerial and naval support during amphibious landings. To test these new ideas, the Secretary of the Navy directed a series of Fleet Landing Exercises (FLEX). FLEXs were conducted in the Caribbean, along the California coast, and in the Hawaiian Islands. All FLEX exercises were similar to, or mirror images of exercises undertaken by Colonel Ellis in 1914.
The Marine Corps continued this work throughout the 1930s by identifying strategic goals for the employment of FMF units, along with training objectives for all FMF-type units: infantry, artillery, aviation, and logistics. Oddly, during this period, Major General Commandant Ben H. Fuller decided that the Marine Corps did not need organic artillery. Fuller reasoned that since landing forces would operate within the range of naval gunfire, artillery units were an unnecessary expense.
General Fuller’s rationale was seriously flawed, however. The Navy could be depended upon to “land the landing force,” but the safety of combat ships in enemy waters prevented naval commanders from committing to the notion of “remaining on station” while the Marines conducted operations ashore. Accordingly, the Secretary of the Navy overruled Fuller, directing that FLEX exercises incorporate Marine Corps artillery (provided by the 10th Marines), which at the time fielded the 75-mm pack howitzer.
With its new emphasis on amphibious warfare, the Marine Corps readied itself for conducting frontal assaults against well-defended shore installations — with infantry battalions organized to conduct a sustained operation against a well-fortified enemy. When Germany invaded Poland in 1939, President Franklin D. Roosevelt announced a “limited national emergency.” Doing so permitted the Marine Corps to increase its recruiting to authorized wartime strength — including Advance Defense Battalions (ADB).
At first, ADBs operated as expeditionary coastal artillery units capable of occupying an undefended beach and establishing “all-around” sea-air defenses. The average strength of the ADB was 1,372 Marines; their armaments included eight 155-mm guns, 12 90-mm guns, 25 20-mm guns, and 35 50-caliber machine guns. The staffing demand for twenty (20) ADBs initially fractured the Marine Corps’ artillery community, but approaching Japan’s sneak attack on 7 December 1941, HQMC began organizing its first infantry divisions, including a T/O artillery regiment.
World War II
During World War II, the Marine Corps formed two amphibious corps, each supported by three infantry divisions and three air wings. In 1941, the capabilities of artillery organizations varied according to weapon types. For instance, the 10th Marines might have 75mm pack howitzers, while the 11th Marines might field 155-mm howitzers. But, by 1942, each artillery regiment had three 75-mm howitzer battalions and one 105-mm howitzer battalion. An additional 105-mm howitzer battalion was added to each regiment in 1943. By 1945, each artillery regiment hosted four 105-mm battalions.
The Marine Corps re-activated the 11th Marines on 1 March 1941 for service with the 1st Marine Division (1stMarDiv). The regiment served on Guadalcanal (1942), Cape Gloucester (1943), Peleliu (1944), and Okinawa (1945). At the end of World War II, the 11th Marines also served in China as part of the Allied occupation forces, returning to Camp Pendleton, California, in 1947.
HQMC re-activated the 10th Marines on 27 December 1942. Assigned to the 2ndMarDiv, the 10th Marines served on Tarawa, Saipan, Tinian, and Okinawa. During the Battle of Okinawa, the 10th Marines served as a reserve artillery force. After Japan’s surrender, the 10th Marines performed occupation duty in Nagasaki, Japan. The regiment returned to the United States in June 1946.
HQMC activated the 12th Marines on 1 September 1942 for service with the 3rdMarDiv, where it participated in combat operations at Bougainville, Guam, and Iwo Jima. The 12th Marines were redeployed to Camp Pendleton, California, and de-activated on 8 January 1946.
The 14th Marines reactivated on 1 June 1943 for service with the 4thMarDiv. The regiment served at Kwajalein, Saipan, Tinian, and Iwo Jima. Following the Battle of Iwo Jima, the 14th Marines returned to Hawaii, then to Camp Pendleton, where it disbanded on 20 November 1945.
HQMC activated the 13th Marines for service with the 5thMarDiv on 10 January 1944. Following operations on Iwo Jima, the regiment performed as an occupation force at Kyushu, Japan. The 13th Marines deactivated at Camp Pendleton, California, on 12 January 1946.
The 15th Marines was activated to serve with the 6thMarDiv on 23 October 1943. This regiment participated in the Battle of Okinawa and later as an occupation force in Tsingtao, China. The 15th Marines deactivated on 26 March 1946 while still deployed in China.
(Continued Next Week)
Brown, R. J. A Brief History of the 14th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, US Marine Corps, 1990
Buckner, D. N. A Brief History of the 10th Marines. Washington: US Marine Corps History Division, 1981
Butler, M. D. Evolution of Marine Artillery: A History of Versatility and Relevance. Quantico: Command and Staff College, 2012.
Emmet, R. A Brief History of the 11th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 1968
Kummer, D. W. U. S. Marines in Afghanistan, 2001-2009. Quantico: U.S. Marine Corps History Division, 2014.
Russ, M. Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, Korea 1950. Penguin Books, 1999.
Shulimson, J., and C. M. Johnson. US Marines in Vietnam: The Landing and the Buildup, 1965. Washington: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1978.
Smith, C. R. A Brief History of the 12th Marines. Washington: Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, 1972.
Strobridge, T. R. History of the 9th Marines. Quantico: Gray Research Center, 1961, 1967.
 The Advanced Base Force later evolved into the Fleet Marine Force (FMF).
 Embarking a Marine combat force aboard US Navy ships or conducting amphibious operations is not a simple task. The officers and men who plan such operations, and those who implement them, as among the most intelligent and insightful people wearing an American military uniform.
 In August 1942, the threat to the Navy’s amphibious ready group by Imperial Japanese naval forces prompted Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher, Commander, Task Force 61, to withdraw his force from Guadalcanal before the 1stMarDiv’s combat equipment and stores had been completely offloaded. Fletcher’s decision placed the Marines in a serious predicament ashore, but the Battle of Savo Island on 9 August proved that Fletcher’s decision was tactically sound.
 A howitzer is a rifled field gun that stands between a cannon and a mortar. Howitzers are organized as “batteries.” The 75-mm Howitzer (M-116) was designed in the 1920s to meet the need for a field weapon capable of movement across difficult terrain. In other words, the weapon could be “packed” into barely accessible areas and used to provide direct artillery support to infantry units.
 Such was the 1st Defense Battalion at Wake Island between 8-23 December 1941.
Between the 12th and 15th centuries, interconnecting river and sea trade routes transformed Europe’s economy.This development led to Europe becoming the world’s most prosperous trade networks.The only limiting factor to river or sea trade was the inadequacy of ships for that purpose.As Spain began a campaign to push Moslems out of the Iberian Peninsula, it realized economic growth in Andalusia and eventually allowed Spain to seize Lisbon in 1147.In Venice, Genoa, and Pisa, the Italians dominated trade in the eastern Mediterranean.In the North Atlantic, Norsemen began their conquest of England, which evolved into the development of peaceful trade along the North Sea.Trade organizations developed, which involved merchant guilds in northern Germany.
Historians credit the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the Portuguese, under the patronage of Infante Dom Henrique (also known as Prince Henry the Navigator).Henry directed the development of lighter ships, a design known as the caravel.With improved sails, the caravel could sail farther and faster than any other ship of the day.The caravel was highly maneuverable and could sail nearer the wind.With this ship, the Portuguese began exploring the Atlantic coast of Africa [Note 1].
In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias reached the Indian Ocean by sailing around the Horn of Africa.Perhaps the most significant discovery of all was Christopher Columbus’ discovery of the American continent in 1492.This discovery set into motion competition between Portugal and Spain, under whose patronage Columbus made his discovery.To avoid conflicts between these two nations, the Pope issued bulls, which divided the world into two exploration regions. The Pope granted each kingdom exclusive rights to claim newly discovered lands [Note 2].
Gradually, other European states developed maritime interests that placed them into direct competition with Portugal and Spain.In pursuing these interests, exploring nations attacked the ships and seized their competitors’ cargos; it was a behavior that led European countries toward the development of navies, which they used to protect their ships, shipments, and foreign operating bases.Newly discovered lands would be of no benefit to European adventurers unless or until these new lands were conquered, controlled, and colonized.Through the use of superior military technologies, Europeans enslaved indigenous peoples. They used them to harvest the new lands’ bounties, which included precious metals, previously unknown grains, spices, and fruits.
By the 16th century, Italians and Arabs shared a monopoly on overland trade with India and China.The Portuguese broke this monopoly by developing sea routes to both countries.Rivals for business, notably the Dutch East Indies Company, soon eclipsed the Portuguese by establishing bases of operation in Malacca, Ceylon, several Indian port cities, Indonesia, and Japan [Note 3].
In this competitive setting, European powers pursued their overseas interests through treaty, colonization, conquest, or a combination of all three.Trade with China was desirable because of the high demand for Chinese goods and because they offered immense profits.Through the 1700s, China had become the center of the world economy [Note 4].Every European power wanted a trade relationship with China that favored their country at every other competitor’s expense.The inability of the Qing (also Ch’ing) Dynasty to deal with internal challenges in the late 1700s sent a strong signal to the European powers (and Japan) that China was ripe for the taking.
The Qing Dynasty (1644-1912) was China’s last imperial dynasty.Evidence of dynastic decline became evident when Chinese officials proved incapable of ending sectarian violence among Sufi Moslem groups.The Qing’s interference in Moslem affairs led to an insurrection that lasted from 1781 to 1813.It was only with the assistance of a third Moslem group that the rebellion was finally put down.
Soon after the uprising, the European powers (and Japan) began chipping away at Chinese sovereignty —and continued to do so for nearly seventy years.For the Chinese, European and Japanese encroachments were far more than a lengthy series of military assaults; they were the catalyst of a national identity crisis and damaged the Chinese psyche.After several hundreds of years of deluding themselves into believing China was the center of the universe, the Chinese suddenly learned that much-younger nations possessed far superior technologies and had no hesitation in using them to achieve selfish interests.Foreign powers took advantage of every opportunity to whittle away at Chinese sovereignty, including the illegal importation of opium from Afghanistan, India, and Turkey.
In earlier times, chemists believed opium contained harmless healing properties, but in the early to late 1700s, its true nature became apparent as tens of thousands of people became addicted to opium.As more Chinese became opium-dependent, increased demand drove prices higher, which increased the profits of foreign trading companies, smugglers, dealers, and government officials who accepted bribes to look the other way.Finally, realizing opium’s effects, Emperor Jia-Qing issued a succession of edicts (1729, 1799, 1814, and 1831) declaring opium illegal and imposing severe penalties for its importation use.The only tangible result of these laws was that (a) they made opium even more profitable, and (b) high demand for opium guaranteed its continued importation.Everyone involved in the opium trade was making money —except the user.
Opium aside, China enjoyed a favorable trade balance with European interests.China sold porcelains, silks, and tea in exchange for silver bullion.In the late 18th century, the British East India Company (BEIC) expanded the cultivation of opium within its Indian Bengal territories, selling it to private traders who transported it to China.In 1787, BEIC sent 4,000 chests of opium to China annually.By 1833, 30,000 chests went to China.American shipping companies were also engaged in opium, including the grandfather of Franklin D. Roosevelt and the ancestors of former Secretary of State John F. Kerry.The opium trade was euphemistically called the “Old China Trade.”Other foreign powers became involved in opium, as well. BEIC may have lost its monopoly, but profits remained high.
Partly concerned about his people’s moral decay, and somewhat concerned about the outflow of silver, the Emperor directed his high commissioner, Lin Tse-Hsu, to end the trade.Lin ordered the seizure of all opium, including that held in foreign trading company warehouses.Charles Elliott, Chief Superintendent of British Trade (in China), was very quickly inundated with British merchants’ complaints.To assuage their concerns, Elliott authorized the issuance of credits to merchants for 20,000 chests of opium, which he promptly turned over to Commissioner Lin.Lin destroyed the opium; Elliott immediately cabled London, suggesting the British Army’s use to protect the United Kingdom’s investments in the opium trade.
A small skirmish occurred between British and Chinese vessels in the Kowloon Estuary in early September 1839.In May 1840, the British government sent troops to impose reparations for British traders’ financial losses in China and to guarantee future security for trade.On 21 June 1840, a British naval force arrived off Macao and began a bombardment of the city of Din-Hai.Chinese naval forces sent to interdict the Royal Navy were utterly destroyed.The Treaty of Nanking (1842), which ended this First Opium War, was the first of many “unequal treaties” imposed on China.China agreed to cede to the British the island of Hong Kong (and surrounding smaller islands) and granted treaty ports at Shanghai, Canton, Ning-Po, Foo-Chow, and Amoy.
In 1853, northern China became embroiled in a massive civil war known today as the Taiping Rebellion (1850-64).Its leader was Hong Xiu Quan —a man who believed that he was the brother of Jesus of Nazareth.The stated intentions of the Taiping were to (a) convert the Chinese people to Hong’s version of Christianity, (b) overthrow the Qing Dynasty, and (c) reform the state.Hong established his capital at Nan-King.
Despite this massively disruptive upheaval, the Emperor appointed Ye Ming-Chen as his new high commissioner and ordered him to stamp out the opium trade.Ye’s seizure of the British ship Arrow prompted the British Governor of Hong Kong, Sir John Browning, to again request the Royal Navy’s assistance.The British fleet, under Admiral Sir Michael Seymour [Note 5] responded by bombarding fortifications outside the city of Canton.
When Chinese mobs set British properties on fire on 15 December, Browning requested military intervention.The murder of a missionary prompted the French to align with Great Britain against the Chinese government.The Russian Empire soon joined the fray, demanding greater concessions from China, including the legalization of the opium trade and exempting foreign traders from import duties.In late June 1858, foreign powers forced China to pay reparations for the Second Opium War, open additional port cities to European commerce, and authorize missionaries’ unlimited access to Chinese cities.Like circling sharks, Europeans and the Japanese began to carve out their niches in China —sometimes through secret agreements, at other times through military conflict.
By the late 1800s, Shandong Province in North China, long known for social unrest, strange religious sects, and martial societies, had had enough foreign meddling in Chinese affairs.One of these societies was the Yihe-Quan, loosely translated as The Righteous and Harmonious Fists.They were called “Boxers” because of their martial arts expertise and their use of traditional Chinese weapons.The Boxers were staunchly anti-Imperialistic, anti-foreign, and anti-Christian.
The people of North China had long resented the arrogant meddling of Christian missionaries. This outrage grew worse after the Treaty of Tientsin in 1860, which granted foreign missionaries’ freedom of movement throughout China and the government’s authority to purchase land and build churches.Chinese villagers objected to the foreign settlements that developed around these Christian church communities.Natural calamities did not help matters [Note 6].
In November 1897, a band of armed Chinese men stormed a German missionary’s residence and killed two priests.The murders prompted Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II to send a naval squadron to seize Jia-Zhou Bay on the Shandong Peninsula’s southern coast [Note 7].Wilhelm’s intent to seize Chinese territory initiated a scramble for further concessions by the British, French, Russians, and Japanese.Germany gained exclusive control of developmental loans, mining, and railway systems in Shandong.Russia gained complete control of all territory north of the Great Wall, which they soon occupied with Russian military forces.The French gained control of Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong provinces.The Japanese gained control over Fujian province, and the British gained control over the entire Yangtze River Valley, from Tibet to the Henan and Zhejiang provinces.The Italians, for whatever reasons, were excluded.
In Chinese religious myth, the Jade Emperor represents the first god, one of three pure ones and the highest power of all Chinese deities.A temple to the Jade Emperor had been built in the village of Li-Yuan-Tun.In 1869, the temple was converted to a Catholic Church.Soon afterward, the French minister in Peking demanded (and received) authorization for the Li-Yuan-Tun priests to bypass local officials in family law and authority to resolve regional disputes.In 1898, the Guangxi Emperor proclaimed the so-called Hundred Days of Reform (22 June-21 September).The reform period enraged Chinese conservatives, as it served to prove that the Qing Dynasty was corrupt, weak, or both.Boxers attacked the Christian community, murdering priests and others.
In an attempt to avoid another uprising, the Empress Dowager Cixi [Note 8] placed the reformist Guangxi Emperor under house arrest and assumed absolute power in China.What made the Boxers particularly worrisome to Cixi was that they were mostly unemployed teenagers with nothing better to do.After several months of ever-increasing violence against foreigners (generally) and missionaries (mostly) in Shandong and on the North China Plain, the Boxers covered on Peking (present-day Beijing). They demanded either the expulsion or extermination of all foreigners.
The Boxer crisis was one of national prominence and one primarily caused by foreign aggression in China.From the Chinese perspective, foreigners were slowly but steadily dismembering China, destroying Chinese culture, and demeaning Chinese religious beliefs.
Initially, Cixi viewed the Boxers as bandits, but realizing that most Chinese conservatives supported the Boxers, she changed her position and issued edicts in their defense.In the spring of 1900, the Boxer movement spread rapidly north from Shandong into the Peking countryside.The Boxers burned Christian churches, killed Chinese Christians, intimidated Chinese officials, or murdered anyone who stood in their way.American Minister Edwin H. Conger cabled Washington, stating, “…the whole country is swarming with hungry, discontented, hopeless idlers.”
Christian missionaries flocked to the Legation seeking the protection of their various ministers on 28-29 May.On 30 May, British Minister Claude Maxwell MacDonald requested multinational troops to secure the Legation.Ambassador Conger cabled Washington to protect the Asiatic Fleet; Kaiser Wilhelm II was so alarmed by the Chinese-Moslem troops that he requested intervention by the Caliph Abdul Hamid II of the Ottoman Empire.
The situation in Peking continued to deteriorate, prompting Admiral Seymour of the Royal Navy to dispatch a second force
On 31 May, Captain John Twiggs (Handsome Jack) Myers, U. S. Marine Corps, arrived in Peking in command of two ship’s detachments of American Marines.The guard force consisted of Myers and twenty-five Marines from USS Oregon, Captain Newt Hall, 23 Marines, five sailors, and U. S. Navy Assistant Surgeon T. M. Lippert from the USS Newark.British and Russian troops, numbering around 325, arrived the same day.
On 5 June, Boxers cut the railway line to Tianjin, isolating Peking and making further military reinforcements difficult.
On 10 June, the “Great eight” organized a second multi-national force under British Vice Admiral Sir Edward Seymour [Note 5] —the largest contingent of which were British, augmented with 112 American sailors and Marines. Captain Bowman McCalla of the U. S. Navy was appointed to serve as Admiral Seymour’s second in command.
Admiral Seymour obtained the Chinese foreign office (headed by Prince Qing) to proceed. Still, when the Empress Dowager learned about Qing’s approval, she replaced him with Prince Duan, a radical anti-western member of the royal family.Prince Duan was the de facto head of the Boxer movement, and it was Prince Duan who ordered the Chinese Imperial Army to attack the western powers.
Admiral Seymour’s expedition had not progressed very far when he discovered that Chinese Boxers destroyed the railway tracks in front of him.He considered returning to Tianjin [Note 9] but found that the Chinese also ripped up those tracks.The distance between Tianjin and Peking was only about 75 miles, prompting Seymour to proceed on foot.
On 11 June, the Japanese minister to China was attacked and murdered by Chinese soldiers guarding the Yong-Ding Gate on the southern wall.The murder was likely intentional because the Chinese commander, General Dong Fu-Xiang, had earlier issued violent threats toward foreign legations.On the same day, German sentries observed the first Boxer in the Legation Quarter.German Minister Clemens von Ketteler ordered his soldiers to capture the Boxer, a teenager, whom Ketteler ordered executed.
Beyond inhumane, killing the lad was a foolish decision because the boy’s execution served only to enrage the Boxers further.In retaliation, thousands of Boxers attacked the walled city.So furious were the Boxers that they began a systematic campaign of pillaging, arson, and murder of all Christian properties and persons, including Chinese Christians.Joining them were gleeful Chinese Moslems.In fear for their lives, dozens of American and British missionaries took refuge inside the Methodist Mission.A Boxer onslaught there was repulsed by U. S. Marines.
On 18 June, Vice Admiral Seymour received word of the Boxer attacks.
On 18 June, the Empress Dowager warned foreign ministers that a state of war would exist between China and the western powers unless they withdrew from Peking within 24-hours.Cixi promised safe passage out of Peking, but only as far as Tientsin.Presumably, after that, the diplomats would be “on their own.”
The Seymour expedition had advanced to within 25 miles of Peking when his relief force was set upon by overwhelming numbers of Boxers and Imperial Chinese soldiers [Note 10].The attacks were so unrelenting (and bizarre) that Seymour was forced to seize and then occupy the Chinese forts at Taku [Note 11].By that time, two hundred of Seymour’s men had either been killed or wounded, and the men were low on ammunition, food, water, and medical supplies.It was a victory for the Chinese, but at a terrible cost in Boxer and Imperial Army lives.Seymour dispatched a Chinese servant with word of his predicament to the Peking legation.
On 19 June, the foreign ministers within the Legation informed the Empress Dowager that they had no intention of withdrawing from Peking.Cixi issued her declaration of war on 20 June; a Boxer/Imperial army siege of the city began on the same day.
Also, on 19 June, Major Littleton W. T. Waller arrived at Taku in command of 107 Marines detached from the First Regiment at Cavite, Philippines.Along with another detachment of 32 Marines, those men formed a light battalion, who immediately moved inland to join a Russian column of 400 men.The small force set off for Tianjin at around 0200 on 21 June.Facing them were between 1,500 to 2,000 Chinese combatants.
The Chinese outnumbered the joint force from the start.When the international force encountered intense enemy fire, they retreated.Waller and his Marines served as a rearguard contingent, forced to leave behind his dead and drag his wounded men.Waller successfully fought off a numerically superior Chinese force and reached the relative safety of Tianjin City. After providing for his wounded Marines, Major Waller immediately attached his remaining men to the 1,800-man British column formed under Commander Christopher Cradock, Royal Navy.At 0400 on 24 June, Cradock’s international expedition (consisting of Italians, Germans, Japanese, Russians, British, and American military contingents) set off again to relieve the Legation.They instead ended up rescuing Admiral Seymour.
In Peking, the Boxers were initially content to harass the foreign Legation with harassing rifle and artillery fires, but there was no organized assault.Foreign ministers agreed to form pro-active, mutually supporting military defenses with the few men at their disposal.On 15 June, Captain Myers placed his Marines on the Tartar Wall, a critical position that would otherwise allow Boxers to direct devastating fire into the legation area.
On 25 June, Seymour was at the point of being overrun by Chinese Boxers and Imperial soldiers when Cradock’s regiment reached what remained of Seymour’s expedition.Admiral Seymour and the relief force marched back to Tianjin unopposed on 26 June.In total, Seymour suffered 62 killed and 228 wounded.
In Peking, Boxers decided to employ the anaconda tactic of squeezing legation guards to death.To accomplish this, they constructed barricades some distance from the front of the Marine position—each day moving them further forward to the legation perimeter.During the night of 28 June, Private Richard Quinn reconnoitered one of these barricades by low-crawling to the barricade.His observation of Boxer activities provided useful intelligence as to the Boxer’s intentions.
On 2 July, Captain Myers determined that he had had enough of the Chinese “squeezing” strategy.The Chinese barricade was, in Myers’ opinion, unacceptably close to the legation perimeter.He decided to organize his men for an assault against the Chinese fence.
Myers launched his assault at 0200 on 3 July.The timing and weather conditions couldn’t have been more perfect.The attack commenced in the middle of a torrential downpour.The legation guard’s attack drove the Boxers back several hundred yards.Two Marines were killed during the attack, and Captain Myers received a severe wound in the leg from a Chinese pike.After the action, Captain Myers was evacuated to the Russian Legation. He received medical treatment; his injury was significant enough to cause Myers to pass his command to Captain Newt Hall.After the assault, sniper and artillery fire died down, and diplomats agreed to an informal truce on 16 July.The desultory fire continued, however, until the foreign legations were relieved on 14 August.
On 6 July, the U. S. Ninth Infantry Regiment joined the allied force near Tianjin.
On 10 July, Colonel Robert L. Meade, commanding the First Marine Regiment, led 318 Marines ashore from USS Brooklyn.Meade led his Marines to Tianjin and joined up with Waller’s battalion.Meade assumed command of all American military forces.
On 13 July, the allied forces launched an assault against Tianjin under Major General Alfred Gaselee, British Army (known as the Gaselee Expedition), appointed as Supreme Commander of the international force [Note 12]. Fighting took place for most of the day with little allied advance.Meade’s 450 Marines suffered 21 casualties.A Japanese-led night attack broke through the Chinese defenses, giving international force access to the walled city.
On 28 July, diplomats in the Legation Quarter received their first message from the outside world in more than a month.A Chinese boy—a student of missionary William S. Ament, covertly entered the Legation Quarter with news that a rescue army of the Eight-Nation Alliance had arrived in Tianjin and would shortly begin its advance.For some, the news was hardly reassuring because the Seymour expedition had failed to break through the Chinese Boxer and Imperial Army.
On 30 July, Brigadier General Adna R. Chaffee, U. S. Army, arrived in Tianjin to assume command of all U. S. Forces in China.Also arriving with Chaffee was one battalion of Marines under Major William P. Biddle [Note 13], two battalions of the Fourteenth U. S. Infantry, the Sixth U. S. Cavalry, and one battery of the Fifth U. S. Artillery.On 4 August, the international expedition of approximately 18,000 men departed from Tianjin for Peking.Chaffee’s force included around 2,500 men, including 425 Marines.
On 5 August, Japanese forces of the international expedition engaged and defeated Chinese forces at Pei-Tsang.A second battle occurred the next day at Yang-Stun.For many allied troops, the unseen enemy was the broiling heat, which caused numerous heat casualties during the 75-mile march to Peking.
On 13 August, the Chinese broke the temporary truce with the foreign Legation with a sustained artillery barrage.The barrage lasted until around 0200 on 14 August.
Five national contingents advanced on Peking’s walls on 14 August: British, American, Japanese, Russian, and French.Each of these had a gate in the wall as their primary objective.The Japanese and Russians encountered the heaviest Chinese resistance.The British entered the city through an unguarded entrance and proceeded into the city with virtually no Chinese opposition.
Rather than forcing their way through a fortified gate, the Americans decided instead to scale the walls.Marines destroyed Chinese snipers and set up an observation post from the vantage point of being on the high wall.In the Marine’s assault, First Lieutenant Smedley D. Butler and two enlisted men received gunshot wounds.
U. S. Marines advanced to the Old Imperial City on 15 August, encountering sporadic resistance, but scattered gunfire did continue to plague the American Legation for several more months.By the end of the siege, Marine casualties included 7 killed, 11 wounded, including Captain Myers and Assistant Surgeon Lippert.
Among the Marines who participated in the Boxer Rebellion, thirty-three received the Medal of Honor … including Private Harry Fisher [Note 14], killed on 16 July 1900; he was the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor posthumously.
Diplomats signed a Boxer protocol in September 1901.
Cohen, P. A. History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth. New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.
Edgerton, R. B.Warriors of the Rising Sun: A History of the Japanese Military.Norton & Co., 1997.
Harrington, P.Peking, 1900: The Boxer Rebellion.Osprey Publishing, 2001.
Martin, W. A. P.The Siege of Peking: China Against the World.New York: F. H. Revell Company, 1900.
Myers, John T. “Military Operations and Defense of the Siege of Peking.Proceedings of the U. S. Naval Institute, September 1902.
O’Connor, R. The Spirit Soldier: A Historical Narrative of the Boxer Rebellion.New York: Putnam, 1973.
Plante, T. K.U. S. Marines in the Boxer Rebellion.Prologue Magazine, Winter 1999.
 Aided by a Chinese invention known as the magnetic compass, first used in Europe around 1200 AD.
 Later modified by the Treaty of Tordesillas, which established an arbitrary line east of which were relegated to Portugal, west of which belonged to Spain.
 In 1599, Japan’s Tokugawa shogunate closed its borders or limited contacts with foreigners until the mid-1800s.
 Between the 15th and 18th centuries, silver had become the medium of exchange between China and Spain.Approximately 35% of all silver bullion produced in the Americas found its way to China.
 Sir Michael Seymour was the uncle of Sir Edward Seymour, also a Royal Navy admiral.
 Traditional Chinese viewed natural (cyclic) events, such as earthquakes, droughts, and severe flooding, as omens that the ruling Emperor had lost the mandate of heaven.Such periods were frequently accompanied by civil unrest and dynastic changes.
 The German government was likely less bothered about the murder of two priests and more interested in using the incident to obtain more concessions from the Chinese government.
 Empress Dowager is the English title given to the mother or widow of an East Asian emperor.Cixi was born with the name Yehe Nara Xing-Zhen of the Manchu clan.She was selected as a concubine to the Emperor Xian-Feng and gave birth to a son in 1856.When the Xian-Feng Emperor died in 1861, her son became the Tong-Zhi Emperor, and she became the Empress Dowager.Calling herself Cixi, she ousted a group of regents appointed by the late Emperor and assumed the regency.She gained control over the dynasty after installing her nephew as the Guangxi Emperor when her son died in 1875.She may have poisoned her nephew after keeping him under house arrest for a while.
 The cities Tianjin and Tientsin are the same; they are merely English language spelling variations from the Chinese lettering.However, there were two distinct areas of the city.In 1900, there were two adjacent subdivisions, one to the Northwest was the ancient high-walled city measuring about one-mile on each side.To the Southeast, about two miles away along the Hai River, was the treaty port and foreign settlements, measuring about a half-mile wide.Around a million Chinese lived within the walled city; the port settlement housed around 700 European merchants, missionaries, and approximately 10,000 Chinese servants, employees, or businessmen.Two of these residents were the American Herbert Hoover and his wife Lou Henry-Hoover.Hoover later became President of the United States.
 Seymour’s glaring error was that (a) he assumed that his western force could easily push aside the Chinese Boxers, and (b) he elected not to include field artillery within the expedition’s composition.
 Chinese Boxers and Imperial troops employed well-aimed artillery against Seymour, and a number of different tactics to keep the western powers off their guard.For example, the Chinese redirected waterways to flood the main routes of march, ambuscades, pincer assaults, and sniper attacks.Seymour’s discovery of a substantial cache of Imperial Chinese arms and ammunition (including Krupp field guns), a million or so pounds of rice, and ample medical supplies saved the expedition from total destruction.
 The actual senior military officer present was General (Baron) Motomi Yamaguchi.Yamaguchi was not selected as supreme commander owing to the fact that he wasn’t a white man.The Japanese contingent did distinguish itself during this series of actions.
 Biddle served as 11th Commandant of the Marine Corps (Major General Commandant) (3 February 1911-24 February 1914).
 Harry Fisher was a soldier and a U. S. Marine and the first to receive a posthumous award of our nation’s highest military decoration.After his award, it was discovered that Private Fisher had enlisted in the Marine Corps under a false name.He had previously served in the U. S. First Infantry Regiment.When the Army refused his request for sick leave (having contracted malaria during the Spanish-American War), he deserted for the purpose of receiving proper medical treatment.When he afterward attempted to restore himself to duty, the War Department refused, and he was “discharged without honor.”His real name was Franklin J. Phillips (20 Oct 1874 – 16 July 1900).With a dishonorable discharge on his record, he changed his name to Harry Fisher and joined the U. S. Marine Corps.
Born in Herefordshire, England in 1885, William E. Fairbairn illegally joined the British Royal Marines in 1901. He was only fifteen years old. He so much wanted to join the Marines that he somehow convinced his recruiter to falsify his paperwork. Upon completion of his initial training, Fairbairn was immediately sent to Korea where he got his first taste of close combat. Along with getting battle-tested in war, Fairbairn realized that his very life could depend upon his ability to defend himself with bayonet or fighting knife. He began studying martial arts disciplines that originated in Korea. It was the beginning of his effort to become a master of combat.
In 1907, the British Legation Guard seconded Fairbairn to the International Police Force in Shanghai; it was the toughest assignment a police officer could get. As a junior officer, he was assigned to one of the cities red-light districts. It was also the most dangerous part of the most dangerous city in the entire world.
Shanghai’s inner-city warlords controlled the gangs of outlaws; they, in turn, ran large areas within the city. These were seriously dangerous men who would brook no competition from either gangsters or police officers. The gangs ran everything illegal, from deviant behavior and opium to the kidnapping and ransom of the children of wealthy parents, to cold-blooded murder.
Not long after arriving in Shanghai, Officer Fairbairn was patrolling in the brothel district when he encountered a gang of criminals who threatened his life. They threatened the wrong man. Fairbairn attacked these gangsters, but he was quickly overwhelmed by their numbers and he received a life-threatening beating. When he woke up in the hospital days later, Fairbairn noticed a plaque near his bed advertising the services of one Professor Okada, a master of jujitsu and bone setting. Through many hours of off duty study, William Fairbairn earned a black belt in both jujitsu and judo.
Fairbairn (pictured left) served 30 years with the Shanghai police. In this time, he was involved in over 600 encounters with armed and unarmed assailants. His innate courage, determination, and acquired skillset in hand-to-hand combat always took him through to safety. On one particular evening, Fairbairn entered into another dangerous situation with a Japanese officer and fellow expert in the martial arts.
At this time, extreme hostility existed between China and Japan. As Fairbairn approached and greeted the Japanese officer, he noticed that there were around 150 Chinese men and women sitting bound on a nearby Japanese naval vessel. When Fairbairn inquired what was in the offing, the Japanese officer informed him that the Chinese persons were going to be executed. Fairbairn insisted that the Japanese officer release the Chinese at once and he would take them into custody. The Japanese officer refused.
Calmly, with a measured voice, Fairbairn warned the Japanese officer, paraphrasing: Do what you have to do, but one day we’ll meet again, and I’ll make sure you pay for this wrongdoing. The Japanese officer released all prisoners to Fairbairn.
Over many years, Fairbairn acquired practical knowledge in the field of law enforcement, self-defense, and close combat. He decided to incorporate his experiences into a new practical street defense system. He called it Defendu. He borrowed from various martial arts and included his own “down and dirty” non-telegraphic strikes that were easy to apply and highly practical and effective in real-world situations. Defendu also included various kicks, mainly designed to damage an attacker’s legs and knees.
In addition to his hand-to-hand combat skills, Fairbairn also developed new police weapons and equipment (bullet-proof vests, batons), firearms training courses, and specialized training for police anti-riot forces.
In 1939, the British Secret Service recruited Fairbairn and commissioned him as an army officer. Shortly after, with his demonstrated skills, colleagues and superiors alike began referring to Fairbairn as “Dangerous Dan.” He, along with fellow close-combat instructor Eric Sykes, received commissions as second lieutenants on 15 July 1940. Fairbairn and Sykes trained British, American, and Canadian commando units, including American ranger forces, in such areas as close-combat, combat shooting with the pistol, and knife fighting techniques. Lieutenant Fairbairn was quite plain in his instruction: dispense immediately with any idea of gentlemanly rules of fighting. His admonition was, “Get tough, get down in the gutter, win at all costs. There is no fair play. There is only one rule—kill or be killed.”
There are those today who never heard of William Fairbairn or Eric Sykes, but they may have heard of their most erstwhile invention: The Fairbairn fighting knife, also called commando knife … a stiletto-type dagger used by the British Special Forces in World War II. Given all his combat-related innovations, some have suggested that William Fairbairn might have been the inspiration for Ian Flemings’ Q Branch in the James Bond novels and films.
Significantly, Fairbairn also influenced training in the U. S. Marine Corps. Anthony J. D. Biddle, Sr., (1874-1948) (shown right) was a millionaire, the son of Edward Biddle II, the grandson of Anthony Drexel, and the great-grandson of Nicholas Biddle —bankers and industrialists all. His wealth enabled him to pursue the theater, writing, and Christianity on a full-time basis. A. J. D. Biddle was the basis of the book and play titled My Philadelphia Father, and the film The Happiest Millionaire. As a United States Marine, Biddle trained men in the art of hand-to-hand combat in both World War I and World War II. He was a fellow of the American Geographical Society and founded a movement called Athletic Christianity. In 1955, Sports Illustrated magazine called him boxing’s greatest amateur and a major factor in the re-establishment of boxing as a legal act and an estimable sport.
Colonel Biddle, as an expert in close-quarters fighting, wrote a book entitled Do or Die: A supplementary manual on individual combat. It instructed Marines and members of the Federal Bureau of Investigation on combat methods with open hand fighting, knife fighting, and bayonet fighting. Within the book Do or Die, Biddle wrote in the Imprimatur, “Now come the very latest developments in the art of Defendu, originated by the celebrated Major W. E. Fairbairn, Assistant Commissioner of the Shanghai Municipal Police, and of jujitsu as shown by Lieutenant Colonel Samuel G. Taxis, U. S. Marine Corps, formerly stationed in Shanghai, who was an instructor in these arts. Following a series of conferences with Colonel Taxis, several of his particularly noteworthy assaults are described in Part III of this manual. Major Fairbairn is the author of the book, Get Tough.
Despite his lethal capabilities, Dangerous Dan was a well-mannered gentleman who never drank alcohol, never used profanity, and never boasted of his ability or accomplishments. William Ewart Fairbairn passed away on 20 June 1960, aged 75, in Sussex, England.
Biddle, A.J. D. Do or Die. Washington: The Leatherneck Association, Inc., 1937
Fairbairn, W. E. Get Tough. New York: Appleton-Century Company, 1942
Fairbairn, W. E. Shanghai: North China Daily News and Herald, 1926
Fairbairn, W. E., and Eric A. Sykes. Shooting to Live. London: Oliver & Boyd, 1942.
Lewis, D. The Ministry of Ungentlemanly Warfare: How Churchill’s Secret Warriors Set Europe Ablaze and Gave Birth to Modern Black Ops. Kindle edition online.
The size and scope of Operation Iceberg —the Battle for Okinawa, given the island’s size and terrain, was massive. Iceberg included the Tenth US Army’s XXIV Corps (four infantry divisions) and the III Marine Amphibious Corps (1st, 2nd, and 6th Marine Divisions), the Fifth US Fleet (Task Force 58, 57, and the Joint Expeditionary Force), involving a combined force of 541,000 personnel (250,000 of which were combat troops). Tenth Army was uniquely organized in the sense that it had its own tactical air force (joint Army-Marine Corps aviation).
The Tenth Army faced 96,000 Japanese and Okinawan belligerents. Between 14,000 to 20,000 Americans died on Okinawa; between 38,000 to 55,000 Americans received serious wounds. Japanese losses were between 77,000 to 110,000 killed with 7,000 captured alive. Approximately half of the entire civilian population living on Okinawa were killed out of an estimated island-wide population of 300,000.
Iceberg was the largest amphibious assault in the Pacific War. The 82-day battle had but one purpose: seize the Kadena air base for Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of the Japanese home islands. The Japanese put up one hell of a fight in their defense of Okinawa but in doing so, they sealed their own fate: the ferocity of the Japanese Imperial Army convinced Washington politicians that dropping its new secret weapon (an atomic bomb) was far better than trying to take the Japanese home islands by force of arms —and costing the Americans an (estimated) additional one-million casualties.
The landing force demanded a massive armada of ships. The Navy would have their hands full with Kamikaze aircraft from mainland Japan. The 6th Marine Division’s mission was to capture Yontan airfield in the center part of the Island. The first assault wave came ashore at 0837, and the 4th Marines (less its 2nd Battalion, held in reserve) was among the first units to hit the beach. What shocked the Marines was that they encountered no resistance from Japanese defenders. Accordingly, the American advance was rapid; significant territorial gains were achieved on that first day. In the absence of Japanese resistance, 2/4 came ashore at noon and rejoined the regiment. Yontan was taken ahead of schedule and then, according to the game plan, the 6thMarDiv turned north. Marine progress continued unimpeded until 7 April when the Marines encountered Japanese defenders on the Motobu Peninsula.
The defense of this peninsula included several Japanese obstacles along the Marine’s likely avenues of approach. Terrain favored the Japanese. Mount Yaetake formed the core of the Japanese defense. The mission of pacifying Mount Yaetake was assigned to the 4th Marines, reinforced by 3/29. The 22nd Marines and the balance of the 29th Marines moved to seal off the peninsula. There is no sense in having to fight the same enemy twice.
The 4th Marines attack commenced on 0830 on 14 April. 2/4 and 3/29 made the preliminary assault on a 700-foot ridge. The Marine advance was bitterly contested until 16 April; it was a classic search and destroy mission but the Japanese weren’t going quietly. On 16 April BLT 3/4 was brought into the line. Marines from Company A and Company C boldly charged through the enemy’s heavy barrage of mortar and machine gun fires to seize the crest by mid-afternoon. Once the Marines secured and consolidated their positions, the mission continued to eliminate pockets of resistance. Combined, the two-company assault resulted in the loss of 50 Marines killed and wounded.
The 6thMarDiv pushed on and the peninsula was pacified on 20 April. Organized resistance in northern Okinawa ended on 21 April 1945. Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., commanding the division, declared his sector secure and available for further operations. In the southern sector of the Island, all American progress came to a halt at the Shuri Line .
General Buckner ordered III Amphibious Corps (Lieutenant General Roy Geiger, commanding) to redeploy his Marines to the left of XXIV Corps; the US 27th Division replaced the 6thMarDiv in its mopping up operations. Shepherd’s Marines were in place by 6th May. Buckner ordered another advance and the 6thMarDiv was tasked with capturing the city of Naha. 4th Marines began their engagement on 19 May after relieving the 29th Marines, who by this time were fought-out. It was a brutal form of war —up close and personal: Marines had to dislodge the Japanese in hand to hand combat. By the time the 4th Marines reached Naha, they were ready to come off the line and were replaced by the 29th Marines.
On 4 June, the 4th Marines assaulted the Oroku Peninsula, the location of the Naha airfield. It was an amphibious assault involving BLTs 1/4 and 2/4 under a blanket of naval gunfire and field artillery support. BLT 3/4 came ashore a few hours later as the reserve force. That afternoon, the 29th Marines came ashore and lined up next to the 4th regiment. It was a slug-fest with a well-entrenched enemy; the battle lasted for nearly two weeks. Torrential rains and thick mud hampered the progress of Marines —mud and slime not even tracked vehicles could penetrate. On 12 June, the outcome of the battle became self-evident. The Japanese continued fighting, of course, but their back was to the water and there was no possibility of escape. By this time, the Marines weren’t keen on taking prisoners. The 22nd Marines closed the back door by moving into a blocking position at the base of the peninsula. The Japanese had but two choices: surrender or die. Most opted for the second option. General Shepherd informed III Amphibious Corps on 13 June that the peninsula belonged to the American Marines.
Following this battle, 6thMarDiv proceeded south to link up with the 1stMarDiv in the final engagement of the battle. 4th Marines returned to the front on 19 June and commenced their advance on the next morning. The Marines encountered some resistance, but not much —the Japanese were fought out, too. All organized resistance ended on 21 June 1945. The 4th regiment’s casualties in the Battle of Okinawa exceeded 3,000 killed and wounded. With Okinawa in American hands, the 4th Marines headed back to Guam for rest, retraining, and refit. Everyone was thinking of the planned assault on the Japanese home islands; no one was happy about such a prospect.
US bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki took place in early August. I’m not sure most Marines knew what an atomic bomb was back then, but even among those who might have had an inkling I doubt whether many were remorseful. Planners began to consider final preparations for occupation. With Japanese acceptance of the terms of surrender on 14 August, Task Force Alpha began to organize for seizure of key Japanese positions, including the naval base at Yokosuka in Tokyo Bay. The main element of Task Force Alpha was the 4th Marine Regiment. The decision to assign the 4th Marines to this duty was a symbolic gesture to avenge the capture of the “old” 4th Marines on Corregidor.
The US 4th Marine regiment was the first American combat unit to land on the Japanese mainland.
As the Marines transitioned from transport ships to landing craft at 0430 on 30 August, they no doubt expected treachery from their war time foe. No matter —the Marines were prepared for any eventuality. First ashore was BLT 2/4, which landed at Cape Futtsu. The Marines were the first foreign invasion force ever to set foot on Japanese soil. Upon landing, the Marines quickly neutralized shore batteries by rendering them inoperable. After accepting the surrender of the Japanese garrison, BLT 2/4 reembarked to serve as a reserve force for the main landing at Yokosuka. BLTs 1/4 and 3/4 landed at around 0900; 3/4 seized the naval base, and 1/4 took over the airfield. Demilitarization of all Japanese installations was initiated as a priority; it would be better not to have loaded weapons in the hand of a recently conquered army. For all of that, all landings were unopposed. Japanese officials cooperated with the Marines to the best of their ability.
Task Force Alpha was disbanded on 21 September 1945 and all 6thMarDiv units were withdrawn from Japan —except one. The Fourth Marines were placed under the operational control of the Eighth Army and the regiment was assigned to maintain the defense of the Yokosuka naval base. This included providing interior guard and the disarming Japanese (who appeared in droves to surrender their weapons). This duty continued until November. President Truman had ordered rapid demobilization of the US Armed Forces. Operational control of the 4th Marines passed from Eighth Army to Fleet Marine Forces, Pacific on 20 November. At the end of the month, BLT 1/4 was ordered to proceed to Camp Pendleton, California, where it was deactivated on 29 December 1945. The regiment’s remaining elements (except for the regimental headquarters and BLT 3/4) departed Japan on 1 January 1946. These units were deactivated at Camp Pendleton on 20 January. BLT 2/4 was deactivated on 31 January 1946. BLT 3/4, still in Japan, was deactivated at Yokosuka and these Marines formed the core of a newly created 2nd Separate Guard Battalion. They would remain in Japan to guard the naval base.
Headquarters 4th Marines departed Japan on 6 January for Tsingtao, China. After four years, The China Marines had returned from whence they came. In China, 4th Marines headquarters was re-attached to the 6th Marine Division, but the regiment really only existed on paper until 8 March 1946. On that date, all three battalions and weapons company were reactivated in China, a matter of shifting personnel from the 22nd and 29th Marines, which were deactivated.
Occupation duty in China presented an uneasy situation for everyone concerned. Truman wanted a smaller military, and he wanted it now, even as Marines confronted an aggressive Communist Chinese Army in North China. The 6th Marine Division was deactivated on 31 March. All remaining Marine Corps units in China were re-organized as the 3rd Marine Brigade. The core element of the 3rd Brigade was the 4th Marine Regiment. Initially, 4th Marines was the only Marine Corps regiment to retain its World War II combat organization of three battalions. Then, on 10 June 1946, the 3rd Marine Brigade was also deactivated; operational control of the 4th Marines was transferred to the 1stMarDiv.
Truman’s reductions kept the Marine Corps in a constant state of flux. In the second half of 1946, the 4th Marines (less its 3rd Battalion) was ordered back to the United States. BLT 3/4 was placed under the operational control of the Commander, Naval Port Facilities, Tsingtao. Meanwhile, the regiment’s arrival at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina on 1 October was the first time the 4th Marines had set foot inside the United States in twenty years. As most of its veterans were discharged or reassigned, the regiment was once more reduced to a paper tiger. In May 1947, the 1st Battalion was reactivated. BLT 3/4, which was still in China was deactivated. In November 1947, 4th Marines lost its traditional structure and became a four-company size organization: Headquarters Company, Company A, Company B, and Company C. This significantly reduced structure remained in place for the next two years. Even so, these rifle companies participated in a number of post-War exercises in the Caribbean.
In September 1948, what was left of the 4th Marines was again sent overseas aboard vessels of the 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean Sea. Cold War antagonism between the Soviet Union and United States threatened to erupt into a full-scale war. By this time, President Truman may have realized that downsizing the US Department of Defense  while at the same time challenging the power of the Soviet Union wasn’t a very good idea. Suddenly realizing the ominous consequences of a Soviet-dominated Europe, Truman began sending military and economic aid to nations menaced by Communist aggression. Truman also decided to maintain a US presence in the Mediterranean to help ease the pressure on such countries as Greece and Turkey. In furtherance of this policy, the Marine Corps maintained a battalion landing team (BLT) as part of the Mediterranean fleet. The 4th Marines was re-activated from this BLT beginning in September 1948 and lasting until January 1949. America’s “show of force” included a landing at Haifa, Palestine in October. This detachment was ordered to proceed to Jerusalem to perform temporary guard duty at the American Consulate.
A few months after returning to the United States, the 4th Marines deployed to Puerto Rico for training exercises. The regiment was once again deactivated on 17 October 1949. Less than one year later, the military weakness of the United States along with other Truman administration blunders encouraged the North Koreans to invade the Republic of South Korea.
Next week: From Harry Truman’s War to the Streets Without Joy
Organization of the United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 5-12D. Washington: Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 2015.
Santelli, J. S. A Brief History of the Fourth Marines. Washington: U. S. Marine Corps Historical Division, 1970
 The Shuri-Naha-Yanabaru Line was a defensible series of positions held by the Japanese Imperial Army. It was so formidable, in fact, that during the contest, Marine Corps Commandant suggested that Tenth Army commander General Simon B. Buckner consider using the 2ndMarDiv in an amphibious assault on the southern coast of Okinawa, thereby outflanking the Japanese defenses. Buckner rejected the proposal, which left only one strategy: frontal assault.
 The Department of Defense was created through the National Security Act of 1947, a major restructuring of the US military and intelligence agencies. This act merged the War Department (renamed as Department of the Army) and Navy Department into the National Military Establishment, headed by the Secretary of Defense. It also created the Department of the Air Force and United States Air Force and established the United States Marine Corps as a separate service under the Department of the Navy.
A provisional military unit or organization is formed on an ad hoc basis for specific operations and, at the time of its creation, is never intended to become a permanent command. The Marine Corps has had several provisional organizations in the past, and in the sense of its present-day operations, continues to do this as part of the Marine-Air-Ground Task Forces (MAGTFs). A MAGTF is an expeditionary organization formed with a specific mission or range of similar contingency operations . The more complicated the mission, the larger the MAGTF. At the conclusion of the assigned mission, ground, air, and combat support elements are returned to their parent (major) commands of the U. S. Marine Corps (e.g., divisions, wings, logistics commands).
In the Marine Corps, an infantry division provides necessary forces for amphibious assaults or in the execution of other operations as may be directed by competent authority. A Marine Division must be able to provide ground amphibious forcible-entry capability to an amphibious task force and conduct subsequent land operations in any operational environment. As the ground combat element of a Marine Expeditionary Force, the Marine Division may be tasked to provide task-organized forces for smaller operations.
There are three infantry regiments within a Marine Corps infantry division. The primary mission of an infantry regiment is to locate, close with, and destroy the enemy by fire and maneuver, or to repel his assault by fire and close combat. The infantry regiment consists of a headquarters company and two (or more) infantry battalions—normally, three such battalions. Infantry battalions are the basic tactical unit with which the regiment accomplishes its mission. The Marine Infantry Regiment is the major element of close combat power of the Marine Division. Infantry regiments (with appropriate attachments) are capable of sustained, independent operations. When the regiment is combined with other combat support and combat service support elements, it will form a Regimental Landing Team (RLT). The Fourth Marine Regiment is one of these.
The 4th Marines was initially activated in April 1911 to perform expedition duty. Later re-designated a Provisional Battalion, the organization was deactivated in July of that same year.
Diplomatic relations between Mexico and the United States were strained beginning in 1910, when a series of revolutions, counter-revolutions, civil conflict, and outright banditry resulted in several incursions by Mexicans into US territory, notably in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona. This was a period during which Texas sent companies of Texas Rangers into the Rio Grande Valley to protect ranches and homesteads from Mexican depredations.
In April 1914, a number of American sailors were on liberty in Tampico, Mexico from USS Dolphinwhen they were arrested by Mexican authorities. We do not know why they were arrested, but having observed sailors on liberty in foreign ports, I have my own theory. The Mexicans soon released the sailors and issued an apology for the arrest. An outraged Rear Admiral Henry T. Mayo demanded that Mexican authorities render honors to the United States flag as Dolphindeparted port —this they refused to do.
Eleven days later, the United States learned that a German vessel was about to off-load a quantity of arms and munitions at Vera Cruz, Mexico. This was a violation of an embargo against the shipment of arms to Mexico, imposed by the United States because (1) the United States failed to recognize the legitimacy of the regime of General Victoriano Huerta, and (2) the bloodshed and turmoil associated with the Mexican civil wars/revolution. Mexico’s violation of the embargo gave President Wilson the excuse he needed to intervene. On 21 April 1914, Wilson ordered the Navy to land the Marines and seize the customs house at Vera Cruz.
One consequence of Wilson’s directive was the re-activation of the 4th Marines at Puget Sound, Washington.
The newly re-formed 4th Marines was initially composed of its headquarters company and the 24th, 26th, and 27th rifle companies. Colonel Joseph H. Pendleton, with considerable experience commanding expeditionary units, was ordered to assume command of the regiment. Within only two days, the regiment embarked aboard USS South Dakota and sailed for San Francisco, California. At Mare Island, four additional companies joined the regiment: the 31st and 32nd companies boarded South Dakota, and the 34th and 35th companies embarked aboard USS Jupiter. Both ships set sail almost immediately after loading the Marines.
On that same day, 21 April, USS Prairie landed 502 Marines in Vera Cruz from the 2nd Advanced Base Regiment. Marine Detachments and 295 sailors (bluejackets) from USS Florida and USS Utah also went ashore as a provisional battalion. The Mexican commander at Vera Cruz was General Gustavo Maass who, owing to a great deal of common sense, withdrew his forces from the city. The American landing force was unopposed but taking control of the city was not as easy. Fierce fighting began when cadets of the Vera Cruz Naval Academy, supported by fifty-or-so Mexican soldiers and untrained citizens resisted the US invasion force. Naval artillery destroyed the Naval Academy and its cadets. Afterward, the Marines took complete control of the city with little difficulty.
South Dakota and Jupiter arrived at Mazatlán on 28 April 1914, with South Dakota ordered to proceed further south into Acapulco harbor. Within a week, USS West Virginia arrived at Mazatlán with reinforcements, the 28th and 36th rifle companies. The 4th Marines was now comprised of ten rifle companies (three battalions) and all of its forces were in Mexican waters primed for action while stationary off the West Coast of Mexico.
The naval force remained in Mexican waters through June 1914. The 4th Marines would only be put ashore if the situation demanded it. By the end of June, Wilson had decided to support his own dictator of choice and with the election of Venustiano Carranza, tensions between Mexico and the United States eased. Wilson permitted the supply of arms and munitions to Carranza; the 4th Marines were withdrawn from Mexican waters.
Upon return to the United States, most of the regiment established its base of operations at San Diego, California; 1st Battalion (Major John T. Myers, Commanding) was (initially) ordered to return to Mare Island. The 1st Battalion later relocated to San Francisco, where a “model camp” was established on the grounds of the Panama-Pacific Exposition . Meanwhile, regimental headquarters and four rifle companies occupied a new camp on North Island. Owing to the success of the 1st Battalion’s model camp in San Francisco, Colonel Pendleton was tasked to do the same at the Panama-California Exposition in San Diego. The 2nd Battalion, operating under the command of Major William N. McKelvy  was designated to assume this assignment.
Then, in 1915, marauding Indians threatened the lives and property of Americans living in the Mexican state of Sonora. As Mexico had not taken any worthwhile measures to prevent these attacks, or to defend the Americans, relations between the US and Mexico were once more strained. USS Colorado was dispatched with BLT 2/4(-) , arriving off Guaymas on 20 June. Again, the Marines were withheld from going ashore.
In November 1915, Mexican revolutionaries and Yaqui Indian depredations prompted the dispatch of Marines to Mexico, this time involving the regimental headquarters and BLT 1/4 reinforced by the 25thand 28thcompanies. USS San Diego anchored off shore adjacent to Topolobampo, which exerted pressure on Mexican authorities to act in ending threats to American lives and property. Again, the Marines did not execute a landing in Mexico.
In the spring of 1916, civil war broke out in the Dominican Republic. Once more, by presidential order, Marines were ordered to intervene. See Also: Dominican Operations (in three parts). The regiment remained in the Dominican Republic until August 1924.
After returning to San Diego, California, the 4th Marines began receiving Marines from a recently deactivated 7th Marine Regiment. With so many years of peace keeping and constabulary duties in the Dominican Republic and the arrival of new personnel, the regiment began a series of training operations to reorient the Marines to their intended purpose: landing force operations, which have always been a complex undertaking. Training included maneuvers in the Hawaiian Islands. Normal peace time operations were interrupted in 1925 when 2/4 was dispatched to aid local authorities in Santa Barbara, California. An earthquake had severely damaged the city. Duty for these Marines involved general assistance to the civil government and for augmenting law enforcement agencies in restoring order, guarding property, and preventing looting.
In October 1925, the 4th Marines was reorganized to include a third rifle battalion, but for whatever reason this battalion was deactivated within nine months. In 1926, following a series of mail robberies, the President ordered the Secretary of the Navy to assign Marines to mail protection duties. The United States was divided into two zones of operations. Brigadier General Smedley D. Butler was placed in overall charge of the western operations and the 4th Marines became America’s mail guards. Units of the 4th Marines were deployed throughout the western states. Their mission not only included guarding trains and postal trucks, but also post-office guards and railway stations. See also: General Order Number One. Not even the American mob wanted to tangle with Marines; by 1927, the number of mail robberies had dropped to nearly zero and, as the postal department had created its own system of armed guards, the 4th Marines were sent back to San Diego, California.
Our world is not now and has never been free of conflict. In early 1927, threats to the security of the International Settlement in Shanghai, China sent the 4th Marines to deal with the problem. The 4th Marine Regiment subsequently spent so much of its time in China that they became known throughout the Corps as “The China Marines.” Of the number of Marine officers assigned to China with the 4th Marines, six went on to serve as Commandant of the Marine Corps: Alexander A. Vandegrift, Clifton B. Cates, Lemuel C. Shepherd, Jr., Randolph M. Pate, David M. Shoup, and Wallace M. Green. See also: The China Marines (series).
Tensions within the International Settlement in Shanghai never quite subsided, particularly since the Japanese adopted an aggressive stance in China. See also: Pete Ellis-Oracle. With a large contingent of Japanese forces located on the outside of Shanghai, their command authority embarked on a systematic program to undermine the position of the Western powers in the International Settlement. It then became the mission of the Marines to thwart any Japanese attempt to change the status quo of the American sector. The reality of the situation, however, was that should the Japanese have made an overt attempt to seize the American sector, the Marines would receive no assistance from other foreign military contingents. The atmosphere in China after the outbreak of the European war in 1939 was tense; the future of China uncertain. Italy, at the time an official ally of Japan, placed no value in preserving the International Settlement. The situation worsened in 1940 when Italy became actively involved as an ally of Germany against Great Britain and France. It was a downward spiral: The Vichy government of France ordered French forces not to interfere with Japanese military intentions in Shanghai, whatever they might be. At this time, the only obstacle to Japanese aggression in the International Settlement was the 4th Marine Regiment.
In early 1941, Admiral Thomas C. Hart, Commander-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet concluded that war with Japan was inevitable. Accordingly, on his own initiative, he began withdrawing his most exposed units. He recommended to President Roosevelt the withdrawal the 4th Marines, as well. Roosevelt still had not made his decision by September 1941; the situation had by then become dire. US intelligence sources uncovered evidence that Japan was planning to implement a series of incidents that would give them an excuse for seizing the American sector of the International Settlement. Roosevelt finally acted and ordered all naval personnel out of China —including, finally, the 4th Marines. Complete evacuation of the American sector was ordered on 10 November 1941.
On 27 November, Headquarters 4th Marines and the 1st Battalion embarked aboard SS President Madison. The rest of the regiment boarded SS President Harrison the next day: destination, Philippine Islands. The situation was serious enough to cause the navy to assign four US submarines to escort these contracted troop ships to the Philippines. Not so amazingly, the Japanese knew the full details of the Navy’s withdrawal operations, including the names of the ships and their destinations —even before either ship arrived in Chinese waters. One reminder to all hands during World War II was, “Loose lips, sinks ships.”
The unhappy story of the 4th Marines in the Philippine Islands is provided as part of a series titled On to Corregidor. As a result of this debacle, the regimental commander, Colonel Samuel L. Howard ordered the United States Flag and the Regimental Colors burned to avoid their capture by Japanese forces in the Philippines. At that moment, the 4th Marine Regiment ceased to exist. The date was 6 May 1942.
American Marines are a proud lot. There was no way on earth that Marine Corps leadership would allow the 4th Marines to pass into history. On 1 February 1944, the 4th Marine Regiment was reactivated, reconstituted from units of the 1st Raider Regiment. What the Marines needed more of at this stage of the Pacific war was infantry battalions, and fewer “special purpose” battalions. In any case, the reactivation of 4th Marines was unique in the sense that the lineage and honors of both the “old” 4th Marines and 1st Raider regiment were passed on to the “new” 4th Marine Regiment. The regiment’s first operation was the seizure of Emirau Island in the St. Mathias Group. America needed airfields, and since you can’t construct these with Japanese soldiers running all over the place, the Marines were send to terminate all Japanese forces with extreme prejudice. The Japanese, having anticipated that the Americans wanted this island withdrew some time before the landing. The 4th Marines first amphibious landing was unopposed. There was no need for these Marines to worry, though. Marine Corps leadership found something for them to do —they went to Guam. The Battle for Guam is presented in sections.
Next on the agenda for the 4thMarines was the Battle for Okinawa—a brutal slog-fest lasting from 1 April 1945 to 22 June 1945. In this awful battle, the 4thMarines would serve alongside the 15thMarines, 22ndMarines, and 29thMarines and part of the 6thMarine Division. That story will continue next week.
Organization of the United States Marine Corps, Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 5-12D. Washington: Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 2015.
Santelli, J. S. A Brief History of the Fourth Marines. Washington: U. S. Marine Corps Historical Division, 1970
 Commemorating 400thanniversary of Balboa’s discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the opening of the Panama Canal.
 Colonel McKelvy (1869-1933) received his commission as a Marine officer after graduating from the US Naval Academy in 1893. McKelvy served during the Spanish-American War and was awarded the Brevet Medal for extraordinary courage under fire during his service in Cuba, 1898.
 (-) indicates that some portion of the battalion’s organic assets have been detached.
During World War II, China was a battlefield with three opposing armies: Nationalists, Communists, and Imperial Japanese. When World War II ended in 1945, more than 650,000 Japanese and Korean military personnel and civilians were still in China and in need of repatriation. There is an interesting prequel to this event.
In 1912, Imperial China was overthrown and replaced by a Republic under President Sun Yat-sen. The Republic had a short lifespan, however. General Yuan Shi-Kai (commanding the New Army) forced Sun from office and proceeded to abolish national and provincial assemblies. In late 1915, Yuan declared himself Emperor. This too was a short-lived government. Overwhelming opposition to imperial rule forced Yuan from office in March 1918. He died a few months later.
Yuan’s abdication created a power vacuum in China —one almost immediately filled with local or regional warlords. Whatever China’s skeptics thought of government in 1918, negative popular opinion grew steadily worse over time. A nation-wide protest movement among anti-Imperialists in 1919 developed out of the government’s weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, which ceded Chinese territory to Japan —the consequence of which made China a victim of Japan’s expansionist policies— aided and abetted by France, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These protests sparked a sudden upsurge in Chinese nationalism, the creation of populism, and a move toward radical socialism. It was the birth of China’s “new culture movement.”
Repudiating western political philosophy, the Chinese became even more radicalized, inspired as they were by the Russian Revolution and the tireless efforts of Russian agents living in China at the time. The result of this was the growth of irreconcilable differences between the political left and right —a condition that dominated Chinese political history for most of the rest of the twentieth century.
In the 1920s, former-President Sun Yat-sen established a revolutionary base in south China. His mission was to unite China’s fragmented society. Influenced and assisted by the Soviet Union, Sun formed an alliance with the Communist Party of China. Sun, who passed away in 1925, was eventually replaced by one of his protégés, Chiang Kai-shek. Chiang seized control of the Nationalist Party (Kuomintang) and having brought most of south and central China under his rule, then launched a military campaign called the Northern Expedition. It was Chiang’s intent to secure the allegiance of northern warlords. In 1927, Chiang turned his attention to the Communist Party, pursuing them relentlessly in a campaign history recalls as the “White Terror.” In addition to killing off as many communists as possible, he also rounded up political dissidents —killing as many of them as he could find.
Communist leader Mao Zedong led his followers into northwest China, where the established guerrilla bases in Yan’an. A bitter struggle between Chiang and Mao even continued through the 14-year long Japanese occupation of China (1931-1945).
During this period, Chiang and Mao nominally formed a united front to oppose the Japanese, the so-called Second Sino-Japanese War, which became part of World War II. In reality, Mao made every effort to avoid contact with the Japanese during World War II —even despite the fact that he was regularly receiving US-made military equipment.
At the conclusion of World War II, Chiang and Mao wanted nothing to do with repatriating Japanese soldiers to their homeland. US President Harry S. Truman therefore ordered the Navy and Marine Corps into China. Their assigned mission was to (1) accept the surrender of Japanese forces, (2) arrange and affect their shipment back to Japan (or Korea), and (3) assist Chinese Nationalists in reasserting their control over areas previously occupied by Imperial Japan. After four years of a bloody Pacific War, US Marines were handed another combat assignment.
In China, 1945-49
The US 7th Fleet and III Amphibious Corps (III AC) were assigned to duty in China. By presidential order, Marines were prohibited from taking sides during the Chinese civil war. They were, however, authorized to defend themselves against any hostile assault. Major General Keller E. Rockey  commanded III AC. He answered to the China Theater commander, Lieutenant General Albert C. Wedemeyer , U. S. Army.
In Hopeh Province
The 1st Marine Division occupied positions in the vicinity of Tang-Ku, Tientsin, Peking, and Chinwangtao; the 6th Marine Division was assigned to Tsingtao. The 1st Marine Aircraft Wing established air base operations at Tsingtao, Tientsin, and Peking. General Rockey was assigned to command the Shanghai Corps region as an additional duty. III AC began its relocation to China on 15 September 1945. The 3rd Marine Division at Guam and the 4th Marine Division in Hawaii were designated as area reserve forces. The operation was designated BELEAGUER.
The Marine’s arrival in China was met by joyful crowds of Chinese civilians. Brigadier General Louis R. Jones, then serving as the Assistant Division Commander, 1stMarDiv immediately met with port officials in Tang-Ku to make arrangements for the surrender of the Japanese garrison. Scenes of elated Chinese, anxious for liberation from Japanese control, was repeated wherever the Marines came ashore.
On 1 October 1945, Lieutenant Colonel John J. Gormley at Chinwangtao was faced with desultory fighting between Chinese Communist (Chicom) and Japanese Imperial troops, who had yet to be disarmed. Gormley, commanding the 1stBattalion, 7thMarines (1/7) ordered the Japanese troops with withdraw from the town to a bivouac he designated and then detailed his Marines to establish a buffer-zone on the outskirts of the city. Initially, the Chicom seemed satisfied, but cooperation between the Marines and Chicom didn’t last very long. Before the end of October, Chicom elements began sabotaging railroads leading into Chinwangtao and ambushing American held trains. Eventually, Chinwangtao became a major center for communist resistance to American peace-keeping operations.
Japanese Imperial soldiers had also had their fill of war. They were ready to return home, so most Japanese military personnel surrendered to the US Marines within days of their arrival in China. On 6 October, General Rockey accepted the surrender of 50,000 Japanese at Tientsin. An additional 50,000 Japanese surrendered to General Lien Ching Sun, Chiang’s personal representative, four days later. The Marines assigned all surrendering Japanese to bivouac or barracks near the seacoast. Because the number of American personnel was insufficient to the task assigned to them, some Japanese Imperial troops were re-armed and utilized as area guards until they could be replaced by Chiang’s Nationalist forces.
Trouble began on 5 October when a Marine reconnaissance patrol traveling along the Tientsin-Peking road found 36 unguarded roadblocks. An engineer section and a rifle platoon were called up to dismantle the obstructions and restore the highway to usefulness. The next day, at a point about 22-miles northwest of Tientsin, these 35-40 Marines were attacked by an estimated 50-60 Chicom soldiers. A brief firefight forced the Marines to withdraw with their wounded. Another detachment of Engineers was sent back the next day to complete the removal of roadblocks —this time accompanied by an infantry company reinforced by tanks and on-station air support. The road was reopened and, from that point on, Marines were detailed to provide a regular motorized patrol of the vital roadway.
In Peking, the 5th Marines who established themselves in the old Legation Quarter, co-located Brigadier General Jones’ advance command post. A rifle company was placed at each end of the Peking airport. The 1st Marines and 11th Marines under overall command of Colonel Arthur T. Mason set in at the Tientsin airfield. The Taku-Tang-Ku area was garrisoned by 1/5. Battalions 1/7 and 3/7 (with necessary attachments) were assigned to protect the Tang-Ku-Chinwangtao railroad.
1stMAW units under Major General Claude E. Larkin established control over the Tientsin airfield. Flight echelons were assigned to airfields at Tsingtao, Peiping, and Tientsin. However, due to adverse weather conditions in Japan, Marine air operations were initially limited between 9-11 October 1945. The first extensive use of airfields under American control was made by Chinese Nationalist forces. Between 6-29 October, fifty-thousand Chinese Nationalist forces were airlifted to Peking from central and southern China by the 14th Army-Air Force.
The Chicom 8th Route Army observed these movements with interest. Communist raids and ambushes against the Marines soon became a regular occurrence. President Truman had set the Marines down in the middle of a fratricidal war with ambiguous instructions to abstain from participating in the civil war, while at the same time “cooperating” with Nationalist Chinese forces. It was a very thin tightrope, but in time, President Truman made things even worse.
In November 1945, Chiang Kai-shek began preparing for a campaign to take control of Manchuria. General Wedemeyer, who also served at Chiang’s military advisor, warned him to secure his hold on the vital provinces in northeastern China before entering Manchuria because military operations there would require an overwhelming force. Disregarding this advice, Chiang pulled his Nationalist troops out of Hopeh and Shantung, leaving them unprotected from Chicom guerrillas, who quickly seized control. Chiang’s operation into Manchuria was the beginning of his end on the mainland.
In Shantung Province
A much larger Communist force controlled most of the countryside and coastal regions in Shantung. Tsingtao remained a Nationalist stronghold, but they were little more than an island in a Communist sea. Japanese guards controlled the rail line leading from Tsingtao. Until Nationalist troops were able to relieve them, there was no hope of rapid repatriation. Shortly after General Rockey accepted the surrender of Japanese forces in Tientsin, he departed for Chefoo, more or less as an advance party for the 6thMarDiv. General Rockey wanted to investigate conditions at that port city. Upon arrival, Rockey discovered that Chicom elements had already taken control of the city. Moreover, the Communists were determined not to cooperate with the American Marines.
Prior to General Rockey’s arrival, Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid, commanding the US 7th Fleet, messaged the Communist commander requesting that he withdraw his men. The Communist-installed Mayor demanded terms that were unacceptable to Admiral Kinkaid. Vice Admiral Daniel E. Barbey, Commander, VII Amphibious Force, recommended that the landing of 6thMarDiv be postponed. General Rockey agreed. The 6thMarDiv came ashore at Tsingtao on 11 October.
On that very day, 6thMarDiv’s reconnaissance company preceded the main body and moved through the city’s streets lined with flag-waving citizens to secure the Tsang-Kou airfield, located ten miles outside the city. On the following day, Marine observation aircraft landed at the airfield. On 13 October, a Communist emissary arrived in Tsingtao with a letter for the Commanding General, 6th Marine Division —Major General Lemuel C. Shepherd . In this letter, a Chicom official offered to cooperate with the Marines to destroy the remaining Japanese Imperial Army and the rest of the “traitor” (Nationalist) army. The official expected that in return for his cooperation, the Marines would not oppose his forces. General Shepherd’s response included a reaffirmation that his Marines were not present to destroy either the Japanese or any Chinese force. Shepherd also clearly stated that a Communist occupation of Tsingtao was undesirable because the city was peaceful. Moreover, he would not cooperate with Chicom forces and assured this official that should it become necessary to employ his Marines against anyone, they were capable of coping with any situation.
The 6thMarDiv was fully disembarked by 16 October. A formal surrender of the 10,000-man Japanese garrison at Tsingtao was affected on 25 October 1945. Again, despite their surrender, Japanese troops were retained to help defend Tsingtao against Chicom aggression. Clashes between Chicom and Japanese Imperial troops was a frequent occurrence. Marine Aircraft Group 32 (MAG-32) commenced regular reconnaissance missions on 26 October. MAG-32 landed at Tsingtao on 21 October, soon joined by MAG 25. MAG 12 and MAG 24 took possession of the Peking airfield. Major General Louis A. Woods replaced General Larkin as air wing commander on 31 October.
On 14 November 1945, Chicom elements attacked a train carrying General Dewitt Peck and a component of the 7th Marines near the village of Ku-Yeh. An intense battle lasted for more than three hours. Chinese fire from the village was so powerful that the Marines were forced to called in air support. Unfortunately, since Marine aircraft could not clearly distinguish the enemy’s positions, and because of the risk to civilians, permission to fire was not granted. In time, the Chicom forces withdrew and as there were no Marine casualties and the train proceeded.
General Peck’s train was ambushed again the next day. This time, Chicom forces had ripped up 400-yards of the track. Workers sent to repair the line were killed or wounded by land mines. Since repairs would take longer than two days, General Peck returned to Tangshan and boarded a flight to Chinwangtao. In the minds of the Marines, what was needed in this area was a strong offensive by Chinese Nationalists. Commanding the Northeast China Command, General Tu Li-Ming agreed to drive back Chicom forces in order to keep the Marines from becoming involved in the conflict. In return, General Peck agreed to assign Marines to guard duty at rail bridges between Tang-Ku and Chinwangtao —a distance of 135 miles. The problem was that the 7th Marines were already under-manned. General Shepherd transferred the 29th Marine Regiment to Tsingtao to serve under the operational control of the 7th Marines.
On 7 July 1946, China’s communist party issued a statement condemning US policy toward China. Within a short time, Chicom troops launched two minor attacks against the Marines. The first occurred on 13 July when a Chicom unit ambushed Marines who were guarding a bridge fifteen miles outside Peitai-ho. The Marines were overwhelmed and taken prisoner. After some negotiation with American officials, these Marines were released unharmed. Then, on 29 July, a small convoy was ambushed near the village of An-ping by a sizeable well-armed force of uniformed Chicom soldiers. The ensuing battled lasted approximately four hours. Marine aircraft were called in to provide support to the beleaguered Marines and a relief force was also dispatched. The Marine commander intended to encircle the Chicom force, but the reinforcing unit failed to arrive before the Chicom force has withdrawn. Four Marines were killed, including the platoon/convoy commander, Lieutenant Douglas Cowin, Corporal Gilbert Tate, and PFCs Larry Punch and John Lopez. An additional twelve Marines were wounded in the action. This was a serious incident and a signal for the Marines that peace in China would be next to impossible to obtain.
Six miles northwest of Tang-Ku, Hsin-ho was the location of a 1stMarDiv ammo depot. On the night of 3 October 1946, Chicom raiders infiltrated the depot intending to steal munitions. A sentry from 1/5 discovered the intrusion and opened fire on the infiltrators. A Marine reaction force responded immediately but was ambushed. A firefight of some 40 minutes resulted and, once again, the Chicom raiders withdrew before additional reinforcements could arrive. An investigation conducted immediately after the incident discovered the body of one Chicom raider and revealed that several cases of ammunition had been taken . One Marine was wounded during this engagement.
Another engagement at Hsin-ho occurred on the night of 4-5 April 1947. A company size Chicom force initiated a well-planned, well-coordinated attack on three isolated ammo-storage areas within the Depot. A small guard force attempted to defend the depot but was overwhelmed. Within the guard detachment, five Marines were killed, eight more were wounded, and the Chicom force successfully intruded the depot and hauled away a considerable store of ammunition. Marine reinforcements were delayed by the clever placement of landmines, preventing a rapid deployment of combat/reaction forces. An additional eight Marines of the reaction force received serious wounds. Nationalist Chinese assumed control of this ammunition storage site at the end of April. The second engagement at Hsin-ho was the last hostile engagement between Chicom and Marine forces in China.
President Truman’s attempt to reconcile Communist and Nationalist parties, to achieve peace and promote economic recovery, was an utter failure. It was not Truman’s last failure. He would fail again in 1950 —and 38,000 more Americans would die in the Korean War. Not even the formidable George C. Marshall could save China from herself. Nevertheless, the “Committee of Three ” began a series of meetings on 7 January 1946. A cease-fire was proclaimed, and yet, for the Marines in China, there was never a time when a guard detachment considered itself “safe” from Chicom ambush or assault.
Only half of the estimated 630,000 Japanese and Koreans in China had been repatriated between March-April 1946. Chiang Kai-shek demanded the stores of weapons and ammunition that had been taken from the Japanese prisoners, but General Wedemeyer refused Chiang’s request until Nationalist forces had officially assumed control of the repatriation program. As this work continued, Marines were assigned to guard duty watching over the Japanese and Koreans embarking aboard ships to take them home. There was one other mission the Marines performed: that of protecting American lives and property in China, which is precisely what the Marines had always done in China.
Even though President Truman had tasked the Marines with a nearly impossible mission, he almost immediately began a general demobilization of the Armed Forces. Marines serving in China were eligible to return home for discharge under Operation Magic Carpet. This sudden reduction in force left the China occupation force in a quandary: how to achieve their objectives with far fewer troops.
Truman’s decision and timing placed the Marines in a dangerous situation. General Wedemeyer was notified on 13 December 1945 that the 6th Marine Division would be deactivated. Major General Shepherd was ordered back to the United States. He was relieved by Major General Archie F. Howard , who was soon ordered into retirement. Including grunts and air-wingers, there were not enough Marines left in China to man a regiment: 1/29 was disbanded; the third battalion of each infantry regiment was deactivated along with the last lettered battery of each artillery battalion within the 1stMarDiv.
The Fourth Marine Regiment, the historic backbone of the China Marines would be the only regiment in the Corps left intact with three infantry battalions—it was only a temporary reprieve. 1stMAW deactivated the Headquarters and Service squadrons of MAG-12, which also lost VMFN-541, and VMTB-134. Control of the south end airfield at Peking was turned-over the US Army Air Force.
On 1 April 1946, the 3rdMarDiv was redesignated as 3rdMarine Brigade. Of the remaining 25,000 Marines in China, most were young, inexperienced replacements. With their back to the wall, Marine leaders immediately began training them for possible combat.
Control of the Chinese theater was reassigned to the Commander, US 7th Fleet. While still facing the possibility of hostile acts by Chicom forces, the Marines were ordered to begin their withdrawal from China in the summer of 1946. The process of organizational shrinkage continued: 3rd Brigade Marines merged with the 4th Marine Regiment. III Amphibious Corps was deactivated. Officers and troops were either reassigned in-country or returned to the United States. 1stMarDiv regiments in China became battalions. Ultimately, the 4th Marine Regiment was ordered back to the United States —its last organization departing on 3 September 1946. Battalion 3/4 was ordered detached from the 4th Marines and served as a separate battalion under the operational control of the fleet commander.
Within two years, the Nationalist Chinese forces were on the verge of collapse. Chicom forces were taking control of China in leaps and bounds. Accordingly, Marine units were continually shifted to avoid being isolated by Chicom military units. When the Chinese communists captured Nanking, on 24 April 1949, the Chinese Revolution was essentially over. The last American Marines to leave China departed on 16 Mary 1949.
In total, Marine ground forces lost 13 KIA and 43 WIA in clashes with Chicom forces. During this same period, Marine Corps Aviation lost 14 aircraft and 22 aircrewmen.
 LtGen Rockey (1888-1970) commanded the 5thMarDiv during the Battle for Iwo Jima. He is a recipient of the Navy Cross and three Distinguished Crosses. Prior to his retirement, he served as CG FMFLant and Assistant CMC. General Rockey retired in 1950.
 Twentieth Commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps (1 Jan 1952-31 Dec 1955). Shepherd served in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. He was a recipient of the Navy Cross, the last World War I veteran to service as Commandant, the first CMC to serve on the Joint Chiefs of Staff and served as Commandant during the Korean War.
 During World War II, President Roosevelt’s lend-lease program was extended to both Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists in equal measure. The apparent hope was that both forces would use this equipment against the Japanese in China. The Communists, however, stored these arms and equipment in caves located in northwest China, intending to use them against the Nationalist forces at the conclusion of the war. Chicom raiders wanted to steal US caliber ammunition because it was suited their American-provided weapons. In essence, American Marines were being killed and wounded by US manufactured equipment, provided to a potentially enemy by a President of the United States.
 The Committee of three consisted of General Marshall, representing President Truman, General Chang Chung, representing Chiang Kai-shek, and Zhou Enlai, representing the Chairman of the Communist Party, Mao Zedong. The purpose of the committee was to establish a framework within which good-faith negotiations could proceed to achieve peace in China. It didn’t work out that way.
 Captain Archie F. Howard served in the Polar Bear Expedition to China 1918-1919.
I feel privileged to have been part of our country’s naval establishment.In my years as a Marine, I have known and worked with superb Navy officers.So, I enjoy relating stories about the best of the lot, as opposed to officers (of any service) who allowed politics to interfere with their obligations as officers: we have had too many instances of this in our history going all the way back to the Revolutionary War—some of these more recent.
In my opinion, one of the great Naval officers in our history was Bowman Hendry McCalla (1844-1910), a man who was not only proficient in the application of naval power, but also one who demonstrated personal courage in the face of the enemy, and an officer who knew how to best utilize his Marines.He wasn’t a perfect man; he made mistakes, as we all have from time to time, but he was a good man who did his best to serve the United States of America.
McCalla was appointed to the United States Naval Academy in November 1861.At that time, the USNA was temporarily located at Newport, Rhode Island (note 1).In November 1864, young McCalla graduated fourth in his class.After graduation, he was assigned to the South Atlantic Blocking Squadron.
Following the Civil War, McCalla served successively with the South Pacific Squadron, the Home Squadron, and the European Squadron through 1874.Within this ten year period, McCalla was promoted to Lieutenant Commander.Upon completion of his tour with the European Squadron, he was assigned to serve as an instructor at the US Naval Academy.He afterward served as the Executive Officer (second in command) of the steamer USS Powhatan, and from 1881 to 1887, as assistant bureau chief of the Navy’s Bureau of Navigation.He first came to public notice in April 1885 when he led an expeditionary force of Marines and Sailors in Panama to protect American interests during an uprising against Colombian control.
From 1888 to 1890, then Commander McCalla served as Commanding Officer, USS Enterprise, which was then part of the European Squadron.Known as a strict disciplinarian, McCalla crossed the line in his dealings with subordinates and, as a result, faced a highly publicized court-martial upon his return to the United States.Among other charges, he was accused of striking an enlisted man.Convicted of all charges, McCalla was suspended from duty for three years, which caused him to lose several numbers on the navy’s seniority (lineal precedence) list.He was restored to duty in 1893 and served three years as the equipment officer at the Mare Island Navy Yard in San Francisco, California —it was not a great assignment, but McCalla had to demonstrate that he had learned his lesson.
In 1897, Commander McCalla assumed command of the Montgomery-class cruiser USS Marblehead (note 2).With the beginning of the Spanish American War, McCalla was placed in command of Navy Forces blockading Havana and Cienfuegos, Cuba.He shelled the port city of Cienfuegos on 29 April 1898.Then, on 11 May, members of the ship’s crew, along with sailors from the USS Nashville, cut two of the three telegraph cables located at Cienfuegos.McCalla later made arrangements with local Cuban insurgents regarding ship-to-shore communications, but he erred in failing to so inform his superiors.This oversight caused a significant delay in Commodore Winfield Scott Schley’s ability to blockade the enemy’s naval forces, then under the command of Rear Admiral Pascual Cervera y Topete at Santiago de Cuba.
USS Marblehead participated in the blockade before being detached to reconnoiter and seize Guantanamo Bay in southeastern Cuba.McCalla bombarded Spanish positions there on 7 June, capturing the outer harbor for use as a supply base for the American blockading squadron.He then provided material support to the amphibious assault by the 1st Marine Battalion on 10 June.With the Marblehead, McCalla remained on station while the Marines solidified their positions, and, having done so, taking an instrumental part in the effective bombardment of a Spanish fort at Cayo del Toro in Guantanamo Bay.In appreciation of his actions, the Marines honored the commander by naming their encampment after him —Camp McCalla.
Owing to his courage in the face of the enemy, McCalla was advanced six numbers in grade, restoring him to the seniority he had held before his court-martial.
McCalla was promoted to Captain in 1899 and ordered to assume temporary command of the Norfolk Navy Yard; he assumed command of the USS Newark in September for service on the Asiatic Station.Arriving on station, McCalla participated in the naval campaign against Filipino insurgents during the Philippine-American War (1899-1902).It was during this time that Newark was directed to provide reinforcements and needed supplies to the American Legation in Peking.
Captain McCalla afterward led 112-sailors and Marines, reinforcing the Seymour Expedition; as senior US Naval officer, Vice Admiral Seymour appointed McCalla to serve his deputy commander.Confronted by overwhelming Chinese forces, the Seymour Expedition was unsuccessful in reaching Peking, but during a series of engagements, Captain McCalla was cited for displaying calm and steady courage under fire despite being wounded.Captain McCalla was later commended for bravery by the Congress of the United States, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, and King Edward VII of Great Britain.
McCalla completed his sea service as Commanding Officer of the battleship USS Kearsarge and, as an additional duty, serving as Chief of Staff to the Commander, North Atlantic Squadron.He was then assigned to command the Mare Island Navy Yard.Promoted to Rear Admiral on 11 October 1903, McCalla oversaw the Navy’s immediate response to the San Francisco earthquake in April 1906 —which involved ordering ships, sailors, and Marines to aid the stricken city.
Rear Admiral McCalla retired from active naval service in June 1906.He remained in the San Francisco area after retirement; in 1908, he helped welcome the ships of the Great White Fleet to San Francisco Harbor.
Admiral McCalla passed away in Santa Barbara, California on 6 May 1910.
Blow, Michael. A Ship to Remember: The Maine and the Spanish-American War, Morrow, 1992
Coletta, Paolo. Bowman Hendry McCalla: A Fighting Sailor, University Press of America, 1979
Feuer, A.B. The Spanish American War at Sea: Naval Action in the Atlantic, Praeger, 1995
Marine Corps Museum, Manuscript Register Series No.1, Register of the Henry Clay Cochrane Papers (1809-1957)
Trask, David F. The War with Spain in 1898, University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
Tucker, Spencer C., Ed. Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars, ABC-CLIO LLC 2009
1Following the Baltimore Riot on April 19, 1861, pro-Confederate Marylanders took action to stop the movement of Union volunteers through the city on their way to Washington. Telegraph wires were cut, and railroad bridges were destroyed.USNA Superintendent George S. Blake, who was concerned about the possibility of a Confederate attempt to occupy the Naval Academy, decided to relocate the school to Newport, Rhode Island on 25 April 1861.
2USS Marblehead was an unprotected cruiser commissioned on 2 April 1894.She was decommissioned on 21 August 1919.An unprotected cruiser was in common use during the late Victorian period; she was little different from a large gunboat.
The United States’ first interest in China was demonstrated in 1784 when an American flagged merchant ship departed from New York bound for Canton, China. Denied access to British markets, which, given the number of ports then controlled by Great Britain, had a stifling effect on an emerging American economy. Americans went to China looking for new markets to buy goods. They were well received by the Chinese, and in fact some historians have suggested that the Chinese preferred dealing with Americans who wanted to purchase Chinese made goods, while the European nations were only interested in selling to the Chinese.
By the mid-1800s, Sino-American relationships had grown. The interest in markets continued, but so too did an interest in converting millions of Chinese to the Christian faith. Christian missionaries were among the first Americans to study Chinese language, culture, and history—and it was these missionaries that helped to shape America’s overall perceptions of Imperial China.
As for the Chinese, America was seen as a land of opportunity. Thousands of Chinese migrated to the United States during the California gold rush, and labor was in high demand to help build transcontinental railway systems. Some Chinese leaders were so inspired by the American political system that they sought to model a new China on the American Republic.
Thus, for much of America’s history, relationships between the United States and China were positive. In the late Nineteenth Century, however, European powers and Imperial Japan were expanding their colonial interests. Some of these wanted to break China up into colonies, each of these controlled by one European power or another.
Discontent with foreigners had been on the rise in China since 1898, when the “I Ho Ch’uan Society” (Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists) began gaining popularity in northwest China. This group, commonly referred to as Boxers, opposed foreign influence and developed strong opposition to Christian missionaries. As the Boxers became better known, their ranks swelled with farmers and laborers who were adversely affected by droughts that had come on the heels of devastating floods. The Boxers believed that these misfortunes were the result of foreigners and Christian missionaries.
Over time, Boxer activity spread to additional provinces; provincial leaders, as well as the Imperial Court were inconsistent in their stand relative to the issues. On some occasions, Chinese authorities sought to protect foreigners and Christians. At other times, these same officials stood by and watched the resentment escalate. Tzu Hsi, the empress dowager of the Manchu Dynasty, was publicly anti-Boxer, but privately she encouraged the Boxers.
In the fall of 1899, the United States was a late arrival in China. Nevertheless, the US wanted to maintain what Secretary of State John Hay called an “open door” policy in China. That is to say, a proposal that China keep its door open to foreign trade, but at the same time barring any foreign nation from controlling the internal affairs of China. If the Boxers succeeded in pushing the United States and other foreign countries out of China, this newly opened door could soon be shut. Secretary Hay maintained that it was in America’s best interests to maintain an independent China. Nevertheless, maintaining an open door in China was a challenge, since nations seeking to colonize and control China pursued their own interests irrespective of what the United States thought.
In the next year, a crisis erupted in China as Boxers increased their resistance to foreign influence and presence. This increased violence served as an impetus to the alliance of eight nations: Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, Japan, and the United States. Each of these nations maintained legations in Peking. As the Boxers became progressively violent, hundreds of foreign missionaries and Chinese Christians began flocking into that city asking for the protection of the foreign legations.
On 28 – 29 May 1900, Boxers burned several strategically placed railroad stations. Receiving word of this, the foreign legations wisely suspected that they were being systematically isolated, and it wasn’t long before they telegraphed for help. The 8-nation alliance responded immediately.
On 31 May, Captain John Twiggs Myers, USMC  arrived in Peking in overall command of two ship’s detachments of American Marines. This newly formed Legation Guard consisted of Myers’ twenty-five Marines from the USS Oregon along with Captain Newt Hall, USMC and twenty-three marines, five sailors, and an assistant surgeon from the USS Newark. Also arriving in Peking were 350 sailors and naval infantry from other foreign nations.
A second multi-national force was organized on 10 June under the command of British Vice Admiral Sir Edward Seymour —the largest contingent of which were British, with but 112 American sailors and Marines. US Navy Captain Bowman McCalla  was detailed to serve as Admiral Seymour’s second in command. The Seymour Expedition traveled north, rebuilding the railroad line as they went—and did so with the Chinese government’s authorization. The Chinese government knew that the railway lines between Tianjin and Peking had been severed —in fact, had ordered it done. It was a set up.
In Peking, the first Boxer was seen in the Legation Quarter on 11 June 1900. The German Minister, Clemens von Ketteler, ordered his soldiers to capture the Boxer, who was but a young lad. Inexplicably, Ketteler ordered the boy’s execution. The boy’s death served as the catalyst of a massive attack by thousands of Boxers into the walled city, who commenced a systematic campaign of pillaging and burning Christian churches and cathedrals. Captured Christians (foreign or Chinese) were burned alive. American and British missionaries took refuge inside the Methodist Mission and an attack there was repulsed by US Marines.
The blood-letting continued as soldiers at the British and German Legations shot and killed several Boxers, further alienating the Chinese population, and the effect of which nudged the Qing government toward supporting the Boxers. Vengeance-seeking Moslems soon joined the Boxers in attacking and killing Chinese Christians.
Seymour received news about the Chinese attacks on foreign legations on 18 June; he decided to continue his advance. The expedition had come within 25-miles of Peking when it was set upon by overwhelming Chinese forces. By the next day, Chinese resistance was so severe that Seymour was forced to withdraw. Two-hundred of his men had been either killed or wounded. The expedition was low on food, ammunition, and medical supplies. It was at this point that the expedition discovered a cache of munitions at an arsenal. Seymour captured the arsenal, occupied it, and decided to wait for reinforcements.
Also on 18 June, the Chinese government informed the foreign ministers that a state of war would soon be in effect, unless the legations withdraw from China within the next 24-hours. As a plum, the Chinese government promised safe passage as far south as Tientsin. On the following day, the foreign ministers announced that they had no intention of leaving China. Thus, on 20 June 1900, as promised, the empress dowager issued her declaration of war that included praise for the Boxer insurrectionists. A siege of the city began on that very day.
Chinese artillery and small arms fire became a constant form of harassment, although initially, there were no organized attacks against the foreign legations, but each agreed to form pro-active, mutually supporting military defense. On 25 June, Marines placed themselves at a critical position on the Tartar Wall—otherwise, the entire legation would have been subjected to devastating fires from the Chinese rebels.
The Boxers constructed barricades some distance from the front of the Marine position. During the night of 28 June, Private Richard Quinn reconnoitered one of these barricades by crawling on his hands and knees to the Chinese position, and in so doing, gathered vital intelligence about Boxer activities. Each day, the Chinese moved their barriers closer to the Marine position on the Tartar Wall and by 2 July, these barricades had become unacceptably close to the Marine position.
Captain Myers responded by attacking the Chinese barricade. At a time when the Chinese least expected it, Myers led an attack against the barricades on the Tartar Wall. The Chinese fell back to another barricade hundreds of yards further on. During the engagement, two Marines were killed, and Myers received a serious wound to his leg from a Chinese lance. With Myers seriously wounded, Captain Hall assumed command of the Guard. An informal truce was made on 16 July, although Chinese harassment continued until the foreign legations were relieved on 14 August 1900.
American Marines participated in several actions after Myers’s force reached Peking. After the failure of the Seymour Expedition, the United States quickly scrambled additional troops to help end the siege of Peking. Two separate detachments of Marines left Cavite in the Philippine Islands and joined up near Taku, China. The first detachment consisted of 107 Marines from the 1stMarines, who left Cavite on USS Solace. A second detachment of thirty-two marines sailed from Cavite aboard USS Nashville. These two detachments were combined to form a battalion under the command of Maj. Littleton W. T. Waller. On 20 June, the Marine battalion, augmented by approximately four hundred Russian soldiers engaged the Chinese near Tientsin.
Although the marines served as the spearhead of the American-Russian attack, they had scant success against the greater Chinese force. Following an overwhelming counterattack, Waller decided to withdraw. The Marines formed the rear guard of the retreat, in which they were pursued for four hours, ending up where they started, suffering three killed and seven wounded.
Two days later, Waller’s battalion and the Russian force were strengthened to two thousand men with the arrival of British, Russian, German, Italian, and Japanese troops. This enlarged force went on the offensive the next day and took all but the inner walled city of Tientsin. On 28 June, the international force relieved Seymour’s expedition, which had been held up for a month at the Hsi-Ku Arsenal north of Tientsin.
The 9thUS Infantry arrived on 6 July, joining the allied force near Tientsin. The number of Marines serving in China increased when 318 men under the command of Colonel Robert L. Meade arrived on 10 July from the Philippines. Meade’s Marines moved from the coast to Tientsin, where it joined Waller’s battalion with Colonel Meade assuming command of the all Marine forces.
The next day, the allied force launched an attack against Tientsin to rid the walled inner city of any remaining Boxer forces. The attacking force, commanded by a British general officer, included American Marines, the 9th US Infantry, British, French, German, Japanese, and Russian infantry. Fighting took place most of the day, but there was little to show for it. Of the 451 Marines engaged in this action, seventeen enlisted men and four officers became casualties. A Japanese night attack finally broke through the Chinese defenses, which allowed the international force to enter the walled city of Tientsin.
On July 30, US Army General Adna R. Chaffee  arrived in Tientsin and assumed command of all US forces in China. Arriving with Chaffee was another battalion of Marines under the command of Major William P. Biddle , two battalions of the 14thUS Infantry, the 6thUS Cavalry, and one battery from the 5thUS Artillery.
The mission of the China Relief Expedition was to relieve the legations in Peking and protect American interests in China. On 4 August 1900, the international force of approximately 18,000 combat troops left Tientsin for Peking. Chaffee’s force of 2,500 Americans included 482 Marines.
On 5 August, Japanese infantry engaged and defeated a Chinese force at Pei-tsang. The next day, Marines fought successfully at Yang-stun. The international force reached Peking and relieved the foreign legation on 14 August but experienced several casualties from heat exhaustion during the 85-mile march to Peking.
Upon reaching Peking, Marines aggressed the north gate to destroy Chinese snipers and set up an observation post. Two enlisted men, along with First Lieutenant Smedley D. Butler, were wounded in the assault. By the time the siege was lifted, the Legation Guard suffered eighteen casualties: 7 were killed, 11 wounded, which included Captain Myers and the assistant surgeon.
Marines advanced to the Imperial City on the next day, but light resistance to the presence of foreign military forces continued throughout China for several months. A Boxer Protocol was finally signed in September 1901. Afterwards, US Marines returned to their former assignments and locations.
Of those who served during the Boxer Rebellion, 33 enlisted men were awarded the Medal of Honor, including the first posthumous award of the Medal of Honor: Private Harry Fisher was killed on 16 July while engaged in combat on the Tartar Wall. Private Dan Daly received his first Medal of Honor for heroic action on the night of 15 July.
At this time, military officers were not eligible for the award of the Medal of Honor; instead, those noted for courage under fire were distinguished by advancement of numbers in grade, or on occasion, they were awarded brevet rank . Captain John T. Myers was brevetted Major; First Lieutenant Butler was advanced to brevet captain, and First Lieutenant Henry Leonard was advanced two numbers in grade. Three officers who served during the Boxer Rebellion would become commandants of the United States Marine Corps.
In its aftermath, there was an unfortunate downside to the Boxer Rebellion. A few civilians and members of the news media  first claimed and then reported that Captain Newt Hall was “over cautious” in the defense of the legation by abandoning the barricades —the suggestion being that in doing so, he jeopardized the safety of members of the legation . The fact was that Captain Hall was a somewhat taciturn individual who was not especially liked by members of the legation, whereas Captain Myers was both personable and popular. With his name sullied and given the competitive nature of service in the Marine Corps, Captain Hall demanded a court of inquiry.
Captain Bowman McCalla, USN, who, according to Marine Corps historian Colonel Robert Debs Heinl, Jr., was “neither fool nor faint of heart,” unreservedly recommended Hall for a brevet promotion for his conduct under fire in Peking .
Captain Hall’s court of inquiry convened on 1 March 1901 in Cavite, Philippine Islands. It cleared Captain Hall of any malfeasance, but the wording of the court noted that he was not charged “for the reasons that he has already suffered enough for the worldwide publication and criticism for his conduct in Peking.” This was clearly a case of damnation by faint praise.
The Secretary of the Navy further confounded the issue when he approved brevet promotions for Myers and Hall but, in advancing Captain Myers four numbers in grade for eminent and conspicuous conduct, failed to give a similar compliment to Hall.
Nevertheless, Captain Hall served a full and distinguished career in the United States Marine Corps, retiring in grade of Colonel in 1929.
 McCalla, later to serve as a Rear Admiral, was cited for conspicuous gallantry during this expedition.
 Adna Romanza Chaffee (April 14, 1842 – November 1, 1914) played a key role in the US Civil War, the Indian Wars, Spanish-American War, and the Boxer Rebellion. He rose to the rank of lieutenant general, United States Army and served as Chief of Staff from 1904 to 1906.
 William P. Biddle served as a United States Marine from 1875 to 1919. He participated in the Spanish-American War, Battle of Manila Bay, Boxer Rebellion, China Relief Expedition, Philippine-American War, and World War I. He was the 11th Commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps from 1910 to 1914.
 A warrant that gave commissioned officers a higher title in rank in recognition for gallantry or meritorious conduct in battle without conferring authority, precedence, or pay of actual rank/promotion. An officer so promoted was referred to as Brevet Major or other ranks. An officer so promoted would be noted as Bvt. Major Harold Jones.
 G. E. Morrison, The London Times, as one of the complainants.
 The late Marine historian, retired Colonel Robert Debs Heinl Jr., in Soldiers of the Sea, wrote, “Other charges circulated that Hall had hesitated to lead his men forward over the barricade on the final day when relief was in sight. Ugly talk it was,” noted Heinl. The talk came to the attention of U.S. Army Major General Adna R. Chaffee, who commanded all U.S. forces in China. He detailed Captain William Crozier, who had distinguished himself in the relief column, to look into it. Crozier found that virtually all the complaints were from civilians (who would not know courage if it bit them on the leg) and recommended no further action.
 It was at about this same time that Century Magazine published a slanderous, attack on Hall by a civilian named W. N. Pethick, who had been at Peking during the siege.