From the Halls of Montezuma
To the shores of Tripoli;
We fight our country’s battles
In the air, on land, and sea;
First to fight for right and freedom
And to keep our honor clean;
We are proud to claim the title
Of United States Marine.
Our flag’s unfurled to every breeze
From dawn to setting sun;
We have fought in ev’ry clime and place
Where we could take a gun;
In the snow of far-off Northern lands
And in sunny tropic scenes;
You will find us always on the job
The United States Marines.
Here’s health to you and to our Corps
Which we are proud to serve;
In many a strife we’ve fought for life
And never lost our nerve;
If the Army and the Navy
Ever look on Heaven’s scenes;
They will find the streets are guarded
By United States Marines.
Well, it’s all true, of course, but what most people do not understand is that before there can be victory in battle, there must be the development of doctrine and consistent training that develops a sense of unit and individual esprit-de-corps. Winning battles is what the Marines do, but victory on the field of battle is no coincidence. The superlative battle history of the Marine Corps is a result of years of developing doctrine, a process of scholarly discussions about how things should work, and the finding out what does work, and then implementing vigorous training, and constant rehearsal so that such things work consistently well.
This was not always the case, however. Between 1775-1890, Marine Corps service was a somewhat narrow band of tasks and missions. In the early days, the Corps’ primary mission was service aboard ship —and the Marines were quite useful to the captains of Continental/United States Navy vessels … it was simply that their missions were limited in scope. This was true during the Civil War, as well, when the mission of ship’s detachments were finite.
In the 1890s, the Navy began its transition from sail to steam propulsion engines. While having begun its experimentation with steam engines as early as 1816, US Navy vessels continued to hoist sail until the 1880s. The official transition came with the commissioning of the battleships USS Maine and USS Texas and with this transition, the mission of shipboard Marine Detachments began to change, as well. Over time, not every ship’s captain saw a need for a Marine Detachment aboard his ship. There were only so many capital ships, only so many ships’ detachments, and so many billets for non-shipboard Marines. Marine leaders realized that without a distinctive mission, without unique expertise, then the Corps would, in time, become passé. The question became one of maintaining relevance at a time of rapid doctrinal and technological changes.
One of the Marine Corps’ scholarly leaders at the time was Robert Watkinson Huntington who, by 1890, had served in the Marine Corps for just under 30 years. In that many years, Huntington learned how to do things —to get things done. Huntington was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel in 1897. Then in command of the Marine Barracks, New York Navy Yard, Brooklyn, Huntington received orders from the Commandant of the Marine Corps to immediately raise a battalion of Marines for possible service against Spain in Cuba. It was no easy task to raise a battalion of combat-ready Marines at a time when there was no other battalion-sized unit in the Marine Corps.
To accomplish this task, Headquarters Marine Corps had to redirect four company’s worth of Marines from headquarters type units, recruiting stations, training commands, ships detachments, and Marine Barracks organizations up and down the Atlantic coast. As Huntington started the process of raising this battalion, named the First Marine Battalion (Reinforced), Marine quartermasters began organizing the shipment of combat equipment and tropical weight uniforms to Key West, Florida. While senior Army commanders were still haggling about seniority and raising an expeditionary force, Colonel Huntington was already in Cuba leading his Marines ashore. It was this tireless effort and the success of the First Marine Battalion that provided the Marine Corps with its uniqueness: an amphibious force capable of projecting naval power ashore.
At one time, the world’s naval and military philosophers uniformly believed that successful large-scale amphibious operation was an impossibility—and with good reason. While amphibious warfare has been conducted since ancient times, Napoleon’s failures to control the English Channel and invade England, the Crimean War, and the disaster of Gallipoli were frequently cited as classic examples of its failure as a strategy.
The performance of the First Marine Battalion (Reinforced) in Cuba initiated a love affair between the American people and their Marines. Emotionally manipulated by the yellow press, the American people believed that the Spanish had blown up the battleship USS Maine. They needed American heroes; the Marine Corps gave them a few. The exceptional performance of the U. S. Marines in World War I reinforced this feeling. After World War I, thoughtful, studious Marine officers began working with their Navy counterparts in the development of airpower and amphibious capability — Charles G. McCawley, Charles Heywood, George Elliott, William Biddle, George Barnett, John A. Lejeune, Alfred Cunningham, Roy Geiger, Robert Huntington, Dion Williams, and Earl Hancock “Pete” Ellis among them.
How does one mount a successful operation against a hostile shore without adequate information about the landing site, hydrographics, enemy displacements, the size of a hostile force? Answer: it can’t be done successfully. The officer who pioneered the concept of amphibious reconnaissance forces was (then) Major Dion Williams, USMC (1869-1952). While attending the Naval War College (1905-1907), Williams wrote a paper entitled Naval Reconnaissance, Instructions for the Reconnaissance of Bays, Harbors, and Adjacent Country. This work became the first official US doctrine concerning amphibious reconnaissance. Williams focused his attention on the creation and employment of specialized forces in the conduct of pre-assault reconnaissance; most of Williams’ concepts were later incorporated into the Tentative Manual for Landing Operations (1934).
By any definition, Brigadier General Williams was a well-rounded career officer who, before his retirement in 1935, served as Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps. His contributions to the Marine Corps Reconnaissance mission continues to this day.
Marine Corps reconnaissance battalions had their beginnings in 1942-43, an idea sparked during the Guadalcanal Campaign. The Commanding General, 1st Marine Division, Major General Alexander A. Vandergrift, approved a recommendation submitted by Colonel William J. Whaling to form a scout-sniper company. Whaling’s proposal was for a special operations/special missions company trained in long-range patrolling and as snipers. Centralized training for its personnel was judged to be critical because, while combat patrolling was (and continues to be) governed by lessons learned in combat, the skill sets, and processes of gathering intelligence through long-range patrolling was viewed differently by the 1stMarDiv and 2ndMarDiv. What the Amphibious Corps commander wanted was consistency in roles, missions, and command relationships. The task then became one of standardization, or how to deploy limited reconnaissance assets and clarification of command relationships.
If the scout-snipers operated in general support of the Division, scouting missions would likely originate with the Division Operations Officer (G-3) in cooperation with the Division Intelligence Officer (G-2). Information gathered would be returned to the G-3/G-2 and this intelligence would be used in the planning of subsequent offensive operations.
If scout-sniper assets operated in a direct support role, elements of the scout-sniper company would be temporarily assigned to the Division’s subordinate commands (regiments), who deployed a platoon or squads within the regimental tactical area of responsibility (TAOR). In these instances, the regimental S-3/S-2 would likely coordinate the activities of the temporarily attached scout-sniper element with higher headquarters. Any intelligence gathered would of course be shared with the Division G-3/G-2.
The Scout-Sniper mission, which followed their training, involved long-range scouting, patrolling, escape and evasion techniques, land/maritime navigation, knife fighting, close-quarter combat, demolitions, combat swimming, underwater (scuba) training, hydrographic survey, amphibious reconnaissance, and rubber boat training. Scout-sniper officers also attended the Navy’s Amphibious Scout School, which emphasized ambushes, and amphibious raids.
When the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade (9thMAB) went ashore at Da Nang on 8 March 1965, reconnaissance assets were attached to battalion landing teams (BLTs) to provide direct support to the BLT commander. For example, Company A, 3rd Reconnaissance Battalion (Alpha 3rd Recon) was attached to Battalion Landing Team (BLT), 3/9. Additional reconnaissance platoons subsequently arrived as attachments to BLTs (3/4, 1/3, 2/3). It was a matter of task organizing reconnaissance assets and attaching them to combat commands where they could do the most good.
Once in country, four recon platoons were reformed as Delta Company under Captain Patrick G. Collins. Delta 3rd Recon operated in direct support of the brigade until 7 May 1965, when Lieutenant Colonel Don H. Blanchard led the 3rd Recon Battalion ashore at Chu Lai with the 3rd Marine Amphibious Brigade (3rdMAB). Within a few days, Blanchard was ordered to move his battalion, (with Alpha and Charlie Companies) to Da Nang. Delta Company joined the battalion at Da Nang, while Bravo Company remained at Chu Lai. Under the concept of mission directed task organization, the 3rd Recon Battalion became an administrative headquarters element that provided reconnaissance assets to infantry battalions on an as-needed basis.
Lieutenant Colonel Roy R. Van Cleve assumed command of 3rd Recon Battalion on 1 September. Twenty days later, Van Cleve realigned his battalion in compliance with the III MAF general support directive. Headquarters, Alpha, Charlie, and Delta companies were to operate from Da Nang, while one platoon from Charlie Company would serve at Hue/Phu Bai; a newly designated Recon Group Alpha (consisting of Bravo Company, 3rd Recon Battalion, and Charlie Company, 1st Recon Battalion) would focus on operations from Chu Lai.
Because the infantry battalions at Hue, Phu Bai, Da Nang, and Chu Lai were assigned to static defense missions, Colonel Van Cleve wondered, “Reconnaissance of what?” Van Cleve’s Marines were not performing reconnaissance missions; they were performing security patrols. Rules of engagement within the TAOR limited patrols to the parent unit’s own front yard. Geography dictates scheme of maneuver … so when defensive locations afforded Marines with good observation, there was less demand for a reconnaissance patrol. Hue/Phu Bai reduced their recon contingent to one platoon.
Reconnaissance Areas of Responsibility (RAOR) were defined according to base camp assignment. At Da Nang, the ROAR extended 4 to 10 kilometers forward of the Da Nang perimeter. At Chu Lai, recon teams supported two regiments (4th Marines and 7th Marines); each regimental commander determined his own ROAR. The range of reconnaissance missions was limited by the range of radio equipment, the life of batteries, and surrounding terrain. The field radio PRC-25 replaced the older PRC-47 and PRC-10, neither of which was suitable for deep patrolling. Added to the foregoing, Marine commanders had legitimate concerns about the size of reconnaissance patrols. While true the Marines were operating from fixed bases, there had to be a balance in the size of the patrol. It had to be small enough to be effective, and large enough to fight its way out of an enemy entrapment.
Conflict in Vietnam wasn’t a rehash of the Korean War and all Marine combat units in Vietnam underwent doctrinal tests, particularly since MACV insisted on a static defense strategy. For reconnaissance Marines, 1965 was a year of adjustment. The 3rd Marine Division had its 3rd Recon Battalion, and the 1st Marine Division had the 1st Recon Company; both organizations experienced great difficulty responding to the demands of supporting three (growing) TAORs: Da Nang, Chu Lai, and Hue/Phu Bai. 3rdReconBn and 1stReconCo were dissimilar in their mission-centered organization. The mission of 3rdRecon was to support its parent infantry division (and subordinate commands); 1stReconCo, on the other hand, was a force level unit whose mission was to conduct pre-assault and distant post-assault reconnaissance in support of an amphibious or vertical assault force.
Between 23-27 February 1965, Marines of the 1stReconCo partnered up with the Navy’s Underwater Demolition Team (UDT) and conducted underwater reconnaissance of RED Beach 1 and 2 (Da Nang) in preparation for the amphibious landing of BLT 3/9. This was exactly how reconnaissance was envisioned by (then) Major Dion Williams, as already discussed. Similar missions were completed at Hue and Phu Bai, including underwater river reconnaissance of the Perfume River and at Chu Lai. This was extremely dangerous work. On 27 March, Corporal Lowell Merrill was one of five Marines/Sailors caught in a VC crossfire while surveying near the Tra Bong River. Three of these men died from their wounds, including Corporal Merrill. 1stReconCo Marines also performed as a quick reaction force to protect downed helicopters—efforts which were directed by the III MAF G-2, but none of the missions taken on by 1stReconCo were easy, made more difficult by supply problems. To help solve these issues, the III MAF commander transferred elements of the company to the operational control of the 3rdReconBn.
The earliest reconnaissance patrols in Vietnam were comparatively large, ranging from 12-22 Marines; a few were company-sized patrols, but there was no safety in numbers. On 12 July, an 18-man patrol from Alpha Company was operating near Dai Loc, about 18 kilometers southwest of Da Nang when it tangled with a company of Viet Cong. The patrol was led by 27-year-old First Lieutenant Frank S. Reasoner, USMC, a native of Spokane, Washington. He enlisted in the Marine Corps in 1955 and having completed the Naval Airman’s course in 1956 was designated an Airborne Radioman. After promotion to Corporal, Reasoner attended the Naval Academy Preparatory School. He received an appointment to the U. S. Naval Academy in 1958, graduating in 1962 with his subsequent assignment to the 3rdReconBn. He assumed command of Alpha Company on 20 June 1965.
First Lieutenant Reasoner’s patrol had affected a deep penetration of heavily controlled enemy (communist) territory when it came under heavy fire from an estimated VC force of 100 men. Reasoner, on point with five other Marines at the point of enemy contact, immediately deployed his Marines for an assault. Shouting encouragement and tactical instructions to his men while still isolated from the main body of the patrol, Reasoner organized a base of fire while under intense enemy machine gunfire. Repeatedly exposing himself to the enemy’s devastating attack, Lieutenant Reasoner skillfully provided covering fire to effect the evacuation of wounded Marines. Despite killing several of the enemy and silencing their machine gun, Marine casualties continued to mount. When Reasoner’s radio operator was hit, the lieutenant moved to his side and began to treat his wounds while moving him rearward toward a position of greater safety. When the Marine was hit again, Reasoner courageously went to his aid a second time, running through grazing enemy fire. It was then that Lieutenant Reasoner fell mortally wounded. Acting with unreserved gallantry and devotion to his men, First Lieutenant Frank S. Reasoner gave his life to the service of his country.
Lieutenant Reasoner was the first Marine to receive the Medal of Honor (posthumously) during the Vietnam War. Before his family received this award, the Commanding Officer 3rdReconBn dedicated the battalion’s base camp to his memory. “Greater love hath no man than this: the lay down his life for a friend.” —John 15:13. The U. S. Navy further honored Frank Reasoner by naming FF-1063, a Knox-class frigate, after him.
First Lieutenant Frank S. Reasoner was but one of the thousands of young Marines and Navy Corpsmen who gave their last full measure of devotion to their country. Not every hero gave up his life in Vietnam; some lived on … carrying with them to the end of their days the painful memories of the horrors of war, the loss of friends.
Sergeant Jimmie L. Howard, from Burlington, Iowa, was a student at the University of Iowa when he decided to enlist in the Marine Corps on 12 July 1950. During the Korean War, Howard was awarded the Silver Star Medal, the Navy Commendation Medal, and two Purple Hearts while serving with the 1st Marines. He subsequently served as a squad leader with the 1st Amphibious Reconnaissance Company (later redesignated as 1stReconCo). Promoted to Staff Sergeant (E-5) in 1956, Howard served in several assignments, which included duty as a military policeman, a platoon sergeant in 2/9, Guard NCO, and as a Counterguerrilla Warfare instructor. In April 1966, was assigned as a platoon sergeant with 1stReconCo.
During the evening of 13 June 1966, Staff Sergeant (E-6) Howard led a patrol of 15 Marines and two Navy Corpsmen into a drop zone behind enemy lines atop Hill 488. His mission was to observe enemy troop movements and interdict these by calling in for air and artillery strikes. Aware of the presence of the Marines, a well-trained North Vietnamese Army (NVA) battalion engaged Howard’s patrol with automatic weapons and overwhelming rifle fire. Ignoring the unrelenting fury of hostile fire, Howard repeatedly exposed himself to mortal danger while directing the operation of his small force. As the enemy fire increased in its intensity, Howard demonstrated calm resolve and exceptional courage by directing the fire of his own men and distributing ammunition to those who needed it. When his radio operator was wounded and incapacitated, despite being painfully wounded in his legs by an enemy grenade, Howard called in artillery and airstrikes with uncanny accuracy. By dawn, the next day, Howard’s patrol had suffered five killed in action and all but one Marine wounded. When rescue helicopters attempted to land on Hill 488, Howard waived them off emphasizing that the hillside was still crawling with enemy troops. He instead called in for additional airstrikes which he directed perilously close to his own position and delivered concentrated rifle and machine-gun fire on the enemy. In this way securing a helicopter landing zone, the Howard patrol was soon evacuated. In recognition of his valiant leadership and courageous fighting spirit, Howard was awarded the Medal of Honor by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
There was never a shortage of guts or glory among Recon Marines in the Vietnam War.
Semper Fidelis …
- Hildreth, R., and Charles W. Sasser. Hill 488. New York: Pocket Books,
- Shulimson, J., and Charles W. Johnson. Marines in Vietnam, 1965: The Landing and the Buildup. Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps , 1978.
- Shulimson, J. S. Marines in Vietnam, 1966: An Expanding War. Washington: History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps, 1982.
- Vetter, L. C. Never Without Heroes: Marine Third Reconnaissance Battalion in Vietnam, 1965-1970. Random House/Ballantine Publishing, 1996.
 Whaling was a highly decorated career officer whose service began in 1917. On 7 December 1941, Whaling served as the Executive Officer, Marine Barracks, Hawaii and witnessed the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor. He was subsequently recalled to Washington as a witness to the Roberts Commission. He was subsequently assigned as Commanding Officer, 2nd Battalion, 5th Marines in January 1942 and later assigned as the Executive Officer, 5th Marines Regiment (5thMar). Whaling was legendary as a combat officer, but his administrative skills were lacking. It was something he shared with his Commanding Officer, Colonel Leroy P. Hunt. Colonel Hunt was charismatic, a superior troop commander, but he had no ability to organize or plan complex operations. Whaling was promoted to colonel on 21 May 1942. After landing on Guadalcanal, the performance of the 5th Marines was judged lacking by General Vandergrift who not only relieved Colonel Hunt, but also Colonel Whaling. Hunt was ordered back to the United States; Whaling was retained at Guadalcanal as a division staff officer. He was later promoted to major general, retiring from active service in 1954. Whaling was the recipient of the Navy Cross, Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Bronze Star, Air Medal, and two Purple Heart Medals.
 Alpha Company was the first division recon asset deployed to Vietnam.
 General William C. Westmoreland’s (COMUSMACV) defense strategy for South Vietnam. Sitting around waiting for the enemy to take the initiative is not how the Marine Corps operates; a bended knee is not a Marine Corps tradition.
 Farming out recon platoons meant that the regimental/battalion commanders had to be trusted to use the skill set of recon Marines. Too often, regiments/battalions used the recon Marines in contravention to approved doctrine to missions that nothing at all to do with gathering intelligence.
 Battery life is less in hot/humid climates.
 Camp Merrill was named in Lowell’s honor.
 The Marine Corps has undergone several changes in its rank structure, officer and enlisted, since 1775. In 1958, the proportion of serving noncommissioned officers was 58% of the total USMC enlisted strength, which when compared to the percentage of NCOs in 1941, at 25%, was exceedingly high. The problem was one of advancing technology and increased demand for technical leaders. Specialization led to an imbalance of the enlisted rank structure and some confusion about whom was senior to whom. The Commandant of the Marine Corps ordered a new rank structure in 1958, to take effect in 1959. A transitional period of dual rank structures initially scheduled to end on 1 January 1965, and to ensure that no Marine lost a rank due to administrative reshuffling, “acting ranks” allowed Marines to retain their titles until promoted into the new rank structure. The transitional period ended in 1963.