“Nothing happens in war without logistics.”
—Field Marshal Sir William Slim, British Army
Navy ships cannot remain at sea forever. Shortly after the establishment of the U. S. Navy, senior officers began planning for ports and facilities that would enable the Navy to build and maintain its vessels, warehouse stores and ammunition, and where the navy could develop training programs for the rank and file. Included was the requirement to hire civil engineers capable of overseeing its base construction efforts. The Navy’s first hire was a man named Benjamin Henry Latrobe, an architect.
Latrobe was the son of a Moravian minister of French descent in Yorkshire, England, educated in England and Germany. A widower, he migrated to the United States with his two young children in 1786. Latrobe found the profession of civil engineering and architecture in America barely adequate but left it in the hands of careful, thoughtful, professional men. Latrobe’s building standards dominated in the United States until the American Civil War.
In 1804, the U. S. Navy appointed Benjamin Latrobe Engineer of the Navy Department. Latrobe immediately began drafting plans for the construction of the Washington Navy Yard. In 1809, Latrobe drafted plans for additional navy yards in New York and at Norfolk, Virginia. Despite his contributions to the emerging Navy Department, Mr. Latrobe was never an employee of the Navy Department; he was a civilian architect contracted by the Navy Department. The Navy Department did not implement his plan for New York and Norfolk until long after his death.
In 1826, Congress approved funding for the construction of two dry docks (in Boston and Norfolk); the Navy appointed a noted Bostonian engineer to design and construct them. His name was Loammi Baldwin, a descendant of Deacon Henry Baldwin, an original settler of North Woburn, Massachusetts. Between 1826-34, Baldwin served as Superintendent of Dry Docks and Inspector of Navy Yards. Like Latrobe, Baldwin was a contract employee with no official position within the Navy Department.
William P. S. Sanger (1810-1890) was also from Massachusetts. In 1826, Sanger was apprenticed to Baldwin to learn the trade of civil engineering; between 1827-1834, Sanger represented Baldwin during his absences at the construction of the dry dock in Norfolk, Virginia. Although Sanger was only a temporary employee initially, he would later play a central role in the development of civil engineering in the Navy and the creation of the Navy Civil Engineering Corps. In 1836, Sanger was appointed to serve as Civil Engineer for the Navy and assigned to the staff of the Board of Navy Commissioners, a board of three Navy captains who served as the Secretary of the Navy’s principal advisory staff.
When the Navy Department reorganized in 1836, the Board of Navy Commissioners was replaced by five bureaus intended to oversee various aspects of naval operations. The bureau system remained in place for the next 124 years. The first of these was the Bureau of Navy Yards and Docks, which may serve to illustrate the importance placed on yards and docks by the Navy hierarchy. Along with this emphasis, the Navy required someone to oversee yards and docks programs, which was never an easy task. Although the Navy Civil Engineer Corps wasn’t established until 1867, Secretary of the Navy Abel P. Upshur appointed William Sanger Civil Engineer of Yards and Docks in September 1842.
On 2 March 1867, the Navy established its Civil Engineer Corps and charged it with responsibility for constructing and repairing all buildings, docks, and wharves servicing U. S. Navy ships. Civil engineers would supervise a naval architecture, direct the activities of master builders, and oversee public works initiatives. Civil engineers were not required to wear a navy uniform until 1881 officers. From then until today, Navy civil engineers have worn their unique service insignia.
In the early 1900s, civilian construction companies worked on a contract basis for the United States Navy. On the eve of World War II, the number of civilian contractors working for the navy at overseas locations numbered around 70,000 men. What made this particularly significant was an international agreement making it illegal for civilian employees to resist any armed attack. To do so would classify them as guerilla fighters and this, in turn, would subject them to summary execution. This is what happened when the Japanese invaded Wake Island.
The concept of a Naval Construction Battalion (NCB) was envisaged in 1934 as a war plan contingency, a concept that received the approval of the Chief of Naval Operations (then, an administrative post rather than an operational one). In 1935, Captain Walter Allen, a war plans officer, was assigned to represent BuDocks on the war planning board. Allen presented the NCB concept to the War Planning Board, which included it in the Rainbow Plan.
A major flaw in the proposal for NCBs was its dual chain of command; military control would be exercised by line officers of the fleet, while construction operations would fall under the purview of officers of the Civil Engineer Corps. The plan for NCBs also ignored the importance of military organization, training, discipline, and creating esprit de corps within the force. Last, at least initially, NCB plans focused almost entirely on the construction of training stations within the Continental United States (CONUS) with little attention to the deployment of NCBs to overseas locations.
Rear Admiral (RAdm) Ben Moreell was a leading proponent for Navy Construction Battalions (CBs, also Seabees). In December 1937, Moreell became Chief, Bureau of Yards and Docks. RAdm Moreell (1892-1978) graduated from the University of Washington with a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering in 1913. He joined the Navy at the beginning of World War I. Owing to his educational specialty, the Navy offered him a direct appointment to Lieutenant Junior Grade in the Civil Engineer Corps. Moreell was assigned to the Azores, where he met and was befriended by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Early in his career, the Navy recognized Moreell for his exceptional ability. While serving as a lieutenant commander, Moreell was sent to Europe to study military engineering design and construction. In 1933, he returned to the United States to supervise the Taylor Model Basin in Carderock, Maryland.
In December 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt directed the advancement of Lieutenant Commander Moreell to Rear Admiral, by-passing commander, and captain, and appointed him to head the Bureau of Yards and Docks while concurrently serving as Chief of Civil Engineers of the Navy. With great foresight, Moreell urged the construction of two giant drydocks at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and initiated Navy construction projects on Midway and Wake Island. The Pearl Harbor project was completed in time to repair navy ships damaged during the Japanese attack on 7 December 1941 and the Midway project was completed in time to play an important role in the Battle of Midway.
By summer 1941, civilian construction crews were working on Guam, Midway, Pearl Harbor, Iceland, Newfoundland, and Bermuda. Adm. Moreell took the decision that the navy needed to improve its project supervision. To accomplish this, he requested the establishment of Headquarters Construction Companies, each containing two officers and 99 enlisted men. The mission of the construction companies involved the conduct of drafting, surveys, and project inspections. RAdm. Chester W. Nimitz, then serving as Chief, Bureau of Navigation, authorized the 1st Headquarters Construction Company on 31 October 1941; recruitment began in the following month. The first recruit training class, quite remarkably, began at Newport, Rhode Island on 7 December 1941.
On 28 December 1941, RAdm Moreell requested authority to commission three Naval Construction Battalions. Approval was granted on 5 January 1942 and a call for qualified recruits went out almost immediately. The 1st Naval Construction Detachment was organized from the 1st Headquarters Construction Company, which was then assigned to Operation Bobcat in Bora Bora. The Detachment was tasked to construct a military supply base, oil depot, airstrip, seaplane base, and defensive fortifications. In total, 7 ships and 7,000 men were assigned to the base at Bora Bora.
The 2nd and 3rd Construction companies formed the nucleus of the 1st CB Battalion at Charleston, SC; these were soon deployed as the 2nd and 3rd Construction Detachments. The 4th and 5th companies formed the 2nd CB Battalion and deployed as the 4th and 5th Construction Detachments.
The dual chain of command issue was finally resolved when Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox gave full authority over the Seabees to the Civil Engineer Corps. Construction Battalions were officially recognized as Seabees on 5 March 1942.
To safeguard the location of projects in furtherance of advanced base construction, the Navy coded each project. They were either Lion, Cub, Oak, or Acorn. Lion 1-6, for example, primarily involved fleet bases projects. Cub projects numbered 1-12 involved secondary fleet base projects. Oak and Acorn projects were airfield construction programs.
In the Atlantic, the Seabees’ most complex task was preparation for the Allied landing at Normandy. Subsequent operations took place along the Rhine and some of these involved “front line” work.
The Navy-Marine Corps Team
Marine Corps historian and author Gordon L. Rottman observed, “…one of the biggest contributions the Navy made to the Marine Corps during World War II was the creation of the Seabees.” The Marine Corps, in turn, had a tremendous influence on Seabee organization, training, and combat history.
When Seabees first formed, they did not have a functional training facility of their own. Upon leaving Navy boot camp, Seabee trainees were sent to National Youth Administration camps spread over four states. To solve this problem, the Marine Corps created tables of organization that included NCBs. It was through this process that Seabee companies were organized, equipment was standardized, and combatants received intensified military training through various regimental combat and advance base structures.
Early on, the Marine Corps’ requested one Seabee battalion in general support of an Amphibious Corps. This was initially denied, but before the end of the year, Seabee Battalions 18, 19, and 25 were supporting advanced Marine forces as combat engineers, each of these being attached to composite engineer regiments (the 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th Marines).
In 1944, the demand for increased infantry caused the Marine Corps to deactivate its engineer regiments, but each Marine division retained a Seabee battalion in general support. For operations on Iwo Jima, the 133rd and 31st Seabees were attached to the 4th and 5th Marine Divisions. During the 5th Marine Division’s post-war occupation of China, the 116th Seabees accompanied them. The 83rd, 122nd, and 33rd Seabees supported the III Amphibious Corps.
Navy Seabees were no “one-trick pony.” In addition to combat engineering, they also participated as Naval Combat Demolition Units (NCDUs), and Underwater Demolition Teams (UTDs), the forerunner of the Navy Seals organization.
The difficult we do now; the impossible takes a little longer.
During World War II, Seabees constructed 400 advanced bases across the Pacific to Asia, and from the Caribbean and Atlantic to African and European shores. They frequently landed with assault forces, bringing with them skills in demolition operations, including places such as North Africa, Sicily, Anzio, Southern France, at Normandy, and operations crossing the Rhine River into Germany. They were builders and fighters. In the Pacific region, they constructed 111 major airstrips, 441 piers, 2,558 ammunition magazines, 700 square blocks of warehouses, hospitals —and all of it completed in the heat of battle.
On 27 October 1943, Allied forces landed on the Treasury Islands group, which were part of the Solomon Islands. US and New Zealand forces assaulted entrenched Japanese troops as part of an effort to secure Mono and Stirling Islands so that a radar station could be established on the former, with the latter a staging area in preparation for the assault on Bougainville. By taking the Treasury Islands, Allied forces would isolate Bougainville and Rabaul and eliminate the Japanese garrison. On 28 November, Fireman First Class Aurelio Tassone, U. S. Navy Reserve, assigned to the 87th Naval Construction Battalion, created a legendary figure of the Seabees astride his bulldozer rolling over enemy positions. According to the Naval History and Heritage Command …
Petty Officer Tassone was driving his bulldozer ashore during the landing of the Seabees when Lieutenant Charles E. Turnbull, Civil Engineer Corps, USN, told him that a Japanese pillbox was holding up the advance of the landing force from its beachhead. While Lieutenant Turnbull provided covering fire with his carbine, Tassone drove forward using his front blade as a shield against sustained Japanese automatic weapons fire. Tassone crushed the pillbox with the dozer blade killing all twelve of its Japanese defenders. For his courage under fire, Tassone was awarded the Navy Silver Star medal.
During World War II, Seabees earned five Navy Cross medals, and the nation’s third-highest award for exceptional combat service, 33 Silver Star medals. They also paid a heavy price: 18 officers and 272 enlisted men killed in action. An additional 500 Seabees died as a result of non-combat injuries while performing hazardous construction operations.
During the Korean War, 10,000 World War II Era Seabees were recalled to active service. They served during the landing at Inchon and participated in combat activity elsewhere, performing magnificently as combat engineers. While Seabees were fighting in Korea, others were constructing an air station at Cubi Point, Philippine Islands —a massive undertaking that necessitated the removal of a two-mile stretch of mountain foothills, which, after having removed 20 million cubic yards of soil, became a project equivalent to the construction of the Panama Canal.
Seabees deployed to Vietnam twice during the 1950s. In June 1954 they supported Operation Passage to Freedom; two years later Seabees were deployed to map and survey the roads in South Vietnam. In 1964, Seabees constructed outlying operational bases and fire support bases near Dam Pau and Tri Ton. Beginning in 1965, NCB personnel supported Marines at Khe Sanh and Chu Lai.
On the night of 9 June 1965, the unfinished Army Special Forces camp at Dong Xoai was mortared and attacked by the 272nd Viet Cong Regiment, an assault by an estimated 2,000 communist troops. The Special Forces camp fell to the enemy the next morning. Having been wounded by mortar fire during the assault, Construction Mechanic Third Class Marvin G. Shields fought alongside his Special Forces counterparts helping forward positions in the resupply of much-needed ammunition. Wounded for a second time by shrapnel and shot in the jaw on 10 June, he helped carry wounded soldiers to safer positions, including the fallen commanding officer. After four more hours of intense fighting and greatly weakened by the loss of blood, Shields volunteered to help Second Lieutenant Charles Q. Williams, destroy an enemy machine gun outside the perimeter, which was threatening to kill everyone in an adjacent district headquarters building. During this fight, Williams was wounded for the third time, and Shields for the fourth time, shot in both his legs. Although evacuated, Shields died on the aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Petty Officer Shields became the first and the only Seabee to receive the Medal of Honor for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life beyond the call of duty. Shields and Petty Officer William C. Hoover lost their lives and seven additional Seabees received wounds that required medical evacuation during this battle.
More than 5,000 Seabees served in the Middle East during the Persian Gulf War, the invasion of Afghanistan, and the Iraq War. Since 1990, Seabees have provided vital construction skills in support of civil action programs across the globe, including the Middle East, the Philippine Islands, and in response to natural disasters inside the United States. At the present time, there are six active-duty Navy Mobile Construction Battalions (NMCBs), split between Atlantic and Pacific fleet commands.
There is no question whether the United States will again face a significant national emergency. When that happens, we can only hope (and pray) that we will still have available to us a lethal and exceedingly competent Naval Mobile Construction Battalion: America’s Fighting Seabees.
- Historian, Naval Facilities Engineering Command. History of the Seabees. Washington, 1996.
- Huie, W. B. Can Do! The Story of the Seabees. Annapolis, Naval Institute Press, 1997
- Huie, W. B. From Omaha to Okinawa, The Story of the Seabees. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2012
- Kubic, C. R., and James P. Rife. Bridges to Baghdad: The U. S. Navy Seabees in the Iraq War. Thomas Publications, 2009
- L. Germany First: The Basic Concept of Allied Strategy in World War II. US Army Center of Military History, 1960
- Olsen, A. N. The King Bee. Trafford Publishing, 2007
 Moravia was a crown land of the Bohemian Crown from 1348 to 1918, an imperial state within the Holy Roman Empire from 1004 to 1806, and part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire between 1804-1867.
 At this time, the Navy Department consisted of the Secretary of the Navy, three clerks, and the Chief Engineer.
 Navy officials ordered the Washington Navy Yard fired to keep it out of the hands of the British invaders in 1814. The essential design of the navy yard remains a Latrobe design and the main gate on Eighth Street is the original base entry point.
 In 1826, the only formal training in engineering was the US Military Academy. All other training was informally achieved through apprenticeships.
 It was never clear that the Act of 2 March 1867 intended civil engineers to serve as commissioned officers; the wording is too brief and vague for an adequate conclusion, but as the act stated, “… shall be appointed by the president …” the Secretary of the Navy assumed that his civil engineers should be commissioned as officers of the U. S. Navy. The Secretary did not implement this interpretation until 1 January 1869, but dates of rank were backdated to 13 March 1863.
 When the Japanese invaded Wake Island on 23 December 1941, 70 civilian construction workers were killed when they took up arms against the Japanese. After the fall of the island, 1,104 civilian construction workers were taken into captivity and forced to perform labor in the construction of Japanese defensive positions. Of these, 180 died in captivity believed starved and beaten to death by brutish Japanese guards.
 American war planners realized that the United States faced the possibility of war on multiple fronts, against a coalition of enemies, the Joint Planning Board of the Army and Navy developed a new series of war plans. They were called the Rainbow Plans … color-coded plans drawn up previously.
 An island in the leeward group of the western part of the Society Islands in French Polynesia.