John Twiggs (c. 1750-1816) was a prominent military leader during the Revolutionary War (1775-1783), leading Georgia militia against both the British and back-country Cherokee Indians. After the war, Twiggs remained politically and militarily active in the area of Augusta, Georgia. Twiggs County, Georgia was named in his honor.
While there is not an abundance of information about his early life, we know that John Twiggs was born on 5 June 1750, in the Maryland colony. His parents’ names are unknown, and his antecedents and early life are shrouded in obscurity. Unsubstantiated family history records indicate that he may have been descended from the Jamestown colony, but later biographical sketches place him in Georgia around the 1760s, accompanying the family of David Emanuel, Sr., who had emigrated from either Maryland, Pennsylvania, or Virginia to St. George’s Parish (present-day Burke County), Georgia. In his youth, Twiggs may have been trained as a carpenter or millwright.
John Twiggs married Ruth Emanuel, a daughter of his guardian. Ruth was the youngest sister of David Emanuel, a prominent Georgia politician and former acting governor. Together, John and Ruth Twiggs had five sons and a daughter.
John Twiggs began his military career in the Georgia militia. In August-September 1775 he was a member of Captain John Lamar’s militia company, a unit organized by the Council of Safety and the Committee in Augusta. During the Cherokee War of 1776 he commanded a company in Colonel Samuel Jack’s Georgia regiment.
During the Revolutionary War, the Georgia militia opposed the British advance on Augusta. Twiggs fought as part of Lachlan McIntosh’s  brigade at the abortive Franco-American attack on Savannah in October 1779. Twiggs was commissioned a colonel and appointed to command the Fourth Militia Regiment. When Tory troops reoccupied Augusta in June 1780, Twiggs and his family escaped to the Georgia backcountry. In the following autumn, Twiggs accompanied Elijah Clarke’s exodus to the Carolina mountains. John Twiggs’s name appears on a list of Georgia Whigs proscribed from political activity by royal decree, that of Georgia Governor Sir James Wright, in the summer of 1780.
Twiggs and his regiment participated with Colonel Thomas Sumter in the defeat of British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton at Blackstocks, South Carolina in November 1780. Twiggs was promoted to brigadier general in August 1781. He was tasked with two important missions: drive the British out of Georgia and quell disturbances among the Creek Indians. As a result of his efforts, Twiggs became known as the “Savior of Georgia.”
In addition to his military activities, Twiggs was named to Governor George Walton’s executive council, and served as a land settlement commissioner in the Georgia backcountry. Twiggs served as a member of the State Legislature in 1779, 1781, and 1782. In 1782, Twiggs was appointed to serve as Justice of the Peace in Burke County.
After the Revolutionary War, Twiggs and his family settled in Richmond County, located south of Augusta along the Savannah River. He established a working plantation of approximately 1,500 acres which he called New Hope . He continued his public service as State Indian Commissioner and in this capacity was able to conclude land cession treaties with the Creek Indians. When George Washington visited Georgia in 1791, John Twiggs was part of the welcoming committee. He also served on the commission that selected the site for the University of Georgia and served as a trustee during the university’s earliest days.
In 1795, Twiggs and six others formed a partnership to invest in the so-called Yazoo lands. The effort didn’t work out, however, and after the scandal  was made public, Twiggs aligned himself with the efforts of James Jackson to demand land reform .
John Twiggs died on 29 March 1816 and was buried in the family cemetery, where his grave marker stands. Among John’s six children included Major General David Emanuel Twiggs, USA/CSA, Major George Lowe Twiggs, USA, Abraham Twiggs, and Major Levi Twiggs, USMC, all of whom served during the Mexican-American War (`846-1848). A great-grandson of John Twiggs was Lieutenant General John Twiggs Myers, USMC.
David Emanuel Twiggs (14 February 1790—15 July 1862) was the eldest son of John Twiggs, who served during the War of 1812, the Black Hawk War, the Mexican-American War, and the American Civil War. David Twiggs was born on the Good Hope plantation in Richmond County, Georgia. He was the nephew of David Emanuel, a governor of Georgia, through his mother.
At the outset of the War of 1812, David was commissioned a captain and subsequently decided to make a career in the Army. In 1828, he was dispatched to lead three companies of the First Infantry Regiment to Wisconsin in order to establish a fort at the portage between the Fox and Wisconsin rivers. The fort was named Fort Winnebago, which became the primary base of operations during the Black Hawk War.
In 1836, David Twiggs served as the colonel commanding the US Second Dragoons during the Seminole Wars in Florida. His fierce temper earned him the nickname “Bengal Tiger.” Twiggs was an aggressive military commander who decided to launch pre-emptive offensive operations against the Seminole, rather than waiting for them to make the first strike. To avoid the American army, many Seminole moved deep into the Everglade Swamps. The Seminole never surrendered and, with but few exceptions, the Seminole were able to avoid being forcibly removed to the Indian Territories in present-day Oklahoma.
During the Mexican-American War, David Twiggs led a brigade in the US occupation at the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. He was advanced to brigadier general in 1846 and in this capacity, commanded a division of infantry during the Battle of Monterey. Subsequently joining Winfield Scott’s expedition, he commanded the 2ndDivision in all its battles, from Veracruz to Mexico City. Twiggs was wounded during the assault of the citadel at Chapultepec. After the fall of Mexico City, Twiggs was appointed military governor of Veracruz. In recognition for his service in Mexico, the US Congress awarded him a ceremonial sword. Twiggs was a founding member of the Aztec Club of 1847, a society of US military officers who had served during the war with Mexico.
At the conclusion of the Mexican-American War, Twiggs one of four general officers serving on active duty in the United States Army . Advanced to brevet major general, he was placed in command of the Army’s Department of Texas, a position he held until the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
In 1860, Twiggs wrote to the Commanding General, U. S. Army (Winfield Scott) to inform him that as a son of Georgia, he would follow his state in the matter of secession from the Union. At this time, Twiggs commanded about twenty percent of the entire US Army. General Scott undertook no action to relieve Twiggs of his command in Texas. As the southern states began to secede, Twiggs met with a trio of Confederate commissioners (including Philip N. Luckett  and Samuel A. Maverick ) and surrendered his command to the Confederacy. The surrender included the arsenal at the Alamo, all federal property in Texas, and all of his men (4,000) —including Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee, who was then commanding Fort Brown (present-day Brownsville, Texas). In addition to the 20 federal installations, Twiggs turned over 44 cannon, 400 pistols, 1,900 muskets, 500 wagons, and nearly 1,000 head of horses—all valued at around $1.6 million.
In his agreement to surrender, however, Twiggs insisted that federal officers be permitted to retain their personal firearms and all flags and standards of the U. S. Army. Notwithstanding this chivalry, the United States government was not at all pleased with General Twiggs and he was subsequently “dismissed” from the service effective on 1 March 1861. In May 1862, he accepted a commission as a major general of the Army of the Confederacy and appointed to command the Confederate Department of Louisiana (which included Louisiana and the southern portions of Mississippi and Alabama). By this time, David E. Twiggs was 71-years of age and, owing to his poor health, Twiggs resigned his commission on 11 October 1861, turning his command over to Major General Mansfield Lovell. Returning home to Augusta, Twiggs passed away from pneumonia on 15 July 1862. He was placed to rest on the Good Hope Plantation in Richmond County.
- A Continent Divided: The US-Mexico War, Center for Greater Southwestern Studies, University of Texas, Arlington, 2019
- Winters, J.D. The Civil War in Louisiana, Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963
- Warner, E. J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959
- Russell K. Brown, New Georgia Encyclopedia, History and Archeology, 29 Jan 2010: John Twiggs
 McIntosh emigrated to Georgia with his family from the Scottish Highlands in 1736. Lachlan came of age during the time when Darien township Scots defended the Georgia colony during England’s commercial war with Spain (1739-1748). After his father, John McIntosh Mohr was captured and imprisoned by the Spanish in 1740, Lachlan was placed in the care of George Whitefield at the Bethesda orphanage in Savannah. In 1742, General James Oglethorpe appointed Lachlan to serve as a cadet in the military regiment at Fort Frederica. Lachlan solidified his sympathies with the American protest movement and worked to help organize delegates to the Provincial congress. Promoted to colonel in 1776, he was appointed to command the Georgia Battalion in the defense of Savannah. McIntosh was later commissioned brigadier general in the Continental Army.
 This land was partially comprised of lands confiscated from British sympathizers awarded to Twiggs for his war time service. He farmed tobacco and engaged in shipping and warehousing. Twiggs was a slave-owner, but as to the number of slaves he may have had, we only know that when he died, he left his widow with seven persons in human bondage. New Hope later became part of Augusta’s Bush Field Airport and the only remnant of the estate is the family cemetery.
 The Yazoo land fraud was one of the most significant events in the post-Revolutionary War period (1775-83) history of Georgia. The bizarre climax to a decade of frenzied speculation in the state’s public lands, led by then Governor George Mathews and cronies in the Georgia General Assembly. In essence, Georgia politicians sold large tracts of land in portions of present-day Alabama and Mississippi to political insiders at very low prices. The laws passed to enable this fraud were overturned in the following year, but the issue was challenged in the courts and eventually reached the US Supreme Court (Fletcher v. Peck (1810). The Yazoo sale of 1795 did much to shape Georgia politics and to strain relations with the federal government for well over a generation.
 Land speculation was one frequently overlooked cause of the American Revolution. In the 1740’s land companies (Ohio Land Company and Vandalia Company) formed to claim lands west of the Appalachian Mountains in territories claimed by France. The shareholders of these companies had tremendous influence in the colonial assemblies and in the British Parliament. Their first concern was to remove the threat to their claims by the French, achieved for the most part by the French and Indian War. The land companies were then thwarted further by the British Proclamation of 1763, which prohibited settlement in these western territories. To remove British control over these western lands, the land companies supported the American independence movement, hoping for better terms and a stronger influence within a new government. Federal land policy governing the expansion westward proceeded without clear direction throughout the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. The Ordinance of 1785 initially laid out the orderly protocol by which the western territories were to be settled and incorporated into townships. Under the ordinance, each township was allotted 640 acres, in the expectation that no single farmer would be able to afford all 640 and that groups of farmers from the same region in the East would join together to form western townships. However, during the 1790s, the Federalist Party, in control of the national government, favored the sale of large parcels of land to wealthy speculators who bought the parcels in anticipation of their rising value, and then sold them in smaller pieces to farmers. To this end, the Federalists passed a law setting the minimum individual purchase at 640 acres and the minimum price at two dollars per acre, which was by far more onerous than land development in Texas in the next several decades.
 Along with Winfield Scott, John Wool, and William Harney. As there was no mandatory retirement at this time, all four generals were over the age of 60-years, and three of these men had served in the War of 1812.
 Luckett was a graduate of the USMA and a physician who established roots in Texas after the Mexican-American War. In Texas, he served as a physician with the Texas Rangers under Captain John Ford. An ardent advocate of States’ Rights, he was elected as a delegate to the Texas State Secession Convention in late 1861 and when Texas voted to secede from the Union, Luckett was appointed to the commission of public safety, whose aim was to secure the transfer of federal military property to the Confederacy without engaging in hostile actions. Luckett was later appointed as the Quartermaster General of the Confederate States’ Army in Texas, serving under Earl Van Dorn.
 Maverick was a signatory of the Texas Declaration of Independence in 1835, a land baron and cattle rancher. His name is the source of the term “maverick,” which means “independently minded.” As a rancher, he steadfastly refused to brand his cattle or enclose his property. Consequently, unbranded cattle found wandering the open range were called “mavericks.”